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Prisoners
S - T
 

In many cases, prisoners are referred to by surname only in the source material, making it difficult to know exactly who the individual may have been. This will have led to some duplication in the lists. Check for an individual under their full name, but also under the surname as well.
 
If you can link any of these anonymous surnames to listings with a full name, please contact me so that I can amend the entry.
 

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S
 
 
Sadler
 
Sadler was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p. 30) as having trained the tug of war team from Barrack 4, which was victorious over the Rest of Ruhleben team, trained by Sullivan.
 
 
Thomas Sadler
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Thomas Sadler was from Hull, and was born in Middlesborough on 8 APR 1875. He was a fireman, and was arrested in Hamburg, and after a brief period of imprisonment on the hulks, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
As T. Sadler he was noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Sadler was a merchant seaman on board the Coralie Horlock, and interned in Barrack 4.
 
 
Cyril Sales
 
From a photo of a National Archives file from collection MT9, supplied by Marcus Bateman in March 2007, it is known that on December 4th 1916, Cyril Sales was removed from Barrack 9 to Dr. Weiler's Sanatorium (Camp Changes, Supplement 10). Many thanks to Marcus.
 
 
David J. Salmon
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, David J. Salmon was noted as being from 12 The Avenue, Whitechurch, near Cardiff, and as having been born in Whitchurch in 1896. He worked as a mariner and was arrested in Hamburg on 16 OCT 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 8.
 
 

Alfred Salomon
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds many items relating to inmate Alfred Salomon, under reference RUH 48. These are an extensive collection of printed theatre and concert programmes, revue extracts, poems and song-sheets, from 1914 to 1918; a tercentenary Shakespeare Festival song-sheet, from April 23rd to 30th 1916; a press cutting dated Septmebr 21st 1917; miscellaneous typescript papers relating to Ruhleben from 1915 to 1916; a typescript copy of a letter from Bishop Herbert Bury to Joseph Powell, dated December 18th 1916; a typescript of 'Im Englanderlager in Ruhleben' by Paul Duenau, with a translation by Dr. H. G. Muller from 1915; issues of and extracts from 'Ruhleben Camp News' from January 1915; an issue of the 'Evening Star' dated May 31st 1916; thirteen issues of 'L'Eco' magazine from February 10th to May 10th 1916; photocopied cartoons from 1914; blank writing paper and envelope; miscellaneous illustrated German press cuttings; 22 postcards from 1915 to 1917; nine postcards with original pencil drawings from 1914; six Christmas cards from 1914 to 1916; and 63 photographs from 1915 to 1916. The papers were placed in the Collection by C. R. Salaman, his grandson, in November and December 1977. 
 
The online index tells us that Salomon, who died in 1965, was in Frankfurt having his son treated for asthma at the outbreak of the war. When interned, he became a member of Postal Committee and Vice-Captain at Ruhleben. The family name was later changed to Salaman.
 
From the private letters and postcards collection of Dr. Manfred G. Heber it has been established that Salomon was in Barrack 1 on 12 FEB 1916. (Many thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 
Frederick Salter
 
From a photo of a National Archives file from collection MT9, supplied by Marcus Bateman in March 2007, it is known that on December 4th 1916, Frederick Salter, of Barrack 3, was removed to Dr. Weiler;'s Sanatorium (Camp Changes, Supplement 10). Many thanks to Marcus.
  
 

R. T. Sampson
 
R. T. Sampson, of Market Harborough, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
Steven Douglas Sams
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Steven Douglas Sams was resident at 1 Tredwell Road, Epsom, was born in Dudley on 3 AUG 1888, was a trainer's assistant, was arrested in Berlin on 6 NOV 1914, and then sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
 

Godfrey B. Samuelson
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/53 relating to Godfrey Samuelson, interned in Ruhleben, specifically regarding arrangements for a service of process on Mr. Samuelson regarding money claims from members of the London Stock Exchange. Further documents are held at FO383/59 regarding
a proposal for the exchange of Godfrey B. Samuelson with Alexander Marr of Manchester.
 
A "G. Samuelson" was later noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

J. M. Sanderson
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/48 regarding J. M. Sanderson, a merchant seaman interned at Ruhleben, who had made an enquiry regarding his wages.
 
 

J. H. Saunders
 
J. H. Saunders was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
Saunders was thanked for articles written for the Ruhleben Camp Magazine by its editor, C. G. Pemberton, in the fifth issue (Christmas 1916, p.62).
 
 

Wallis Savage
 
The National Archives in London hold documents fro 1915 at FO383/27 regarding Wallis Savage, the former secretary of the Lynn and Hamburg Steamship Compamy in Hamburg, specifically an enquiry from his brother, H. F. Savage of Mark Lane, London.
 
 

Harold Gilbert Saville
 
Harold Gilbert Saville is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Saville is recorded as having been born on November 23rd 1881 in Solingen, and is described as having been an architect prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Bergstrasse 38, Solingen. At the time the register was recorded, Saville was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 12 on October 22nd 1915. He left for Holland on April 25th 1918.
 
 

Vice-Consul Vernon Saville

The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO 383/22 concerning Vernon Saville, British Vice-Consul in Solingen, who was interned at Ruhleben. The documents contain an enquiry from his wife, Mrs. Mabel Saville of Sheffield, regarding the possibility of an exchange with a German prisoner in Britain.

From a postcard held by Dave Nelson, and addressed by Vernon to G.C Saville c/o George Saville in Sheffield (dated December 22nd 1914), it is known that Vernon was interned within Barrack 12. A further receipt for Vernon, informing him that his copy of In Ruhleben Camp issue 4 was available, tells us that he was in box 1 within the barrack building. 

It is possible that this was in fact the 'Grup Gilbert' who sent a postcard upon his internment, as that is held by Dave Nelson as well, and mentions giving 10 to a 'Mabel'. Many thanks to Dave.

 

Savoye
 
Savoye was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
J. H. Sawyer
 
J. H. Sawyer is noted as being in Barrack 8 on a postcard to London dated 13 AUG 1918, as held now by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

T. Sayce
 
T. Sayce was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

W. Sayce
 
W. Sayce was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Max Schlachtaub
 
Max Schlachtaub was an inmate at Ruhleben who posted a letter from the camp on September 26th 1916, which was later put up for sale on E-Bay in June 2006. The image accompanying the sale contains little else info, although there is a possibility that Max was interned in Barrack 7 (the number is partially covered by an E-Bay watermark).
 
Another letter from Schlachtaub is held by philatelist Jim Mackay, who kindly contacted me in December 2007. Jim holds a cover addressed to Schlachtaub in Barrack 6 Box 23, sent from Berlin on 20 June 1915.
 
 

Max Schleicher  (a.k.a. Gerald Francis Stanley)
 
Max Schleicher was an inmate in Ruhleben, who changed his name by deed poll to Gerald Francis Stanley in January 1916, as witnessed by Joseph Powell, A record of the change was placed into the Times of February 19th 1916 ("Legal Notcies", p.2, col.E):
I, MAX SCHEICHER, of Killoran, Seymoure Road, Church End, Finchley, in the County of London, and of the Ceres Works Company, Warton Road, Stratford, in the County of Essex, Oil Refiner being a British subject born in England and of English Parents, do hereby give notice that I have ASSUMED and intend henceforth upon all occasions and all times to SIGN and USE and be called and known by the NAME of GERALD FRANCIS STANLEY, in lieu of and substitution for my present name of Max Schleicher, and that such change or assumption of name if formally declared and evidenced by a deed Poll and under my hand and seal dated the 23rd day of December, 1915, and on the 10th day of January 1916, enrolled in the Central Office of the Suprem Court of Judicature. In testimony whereof I do hereby sign and subscribe myself by such new name.
 
Dated the Thirty-first day of January, 1916
 
GERALD FRANCIS STANLEY
 
Witness - J. Powell, Captain of the Camp, Ober-Obmann das Lagers Englanderlager, Ruhleben, Spandau.
 
 

Schlesinger
 
Schlesinger was in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p. 26) as having participated in some "Negro melodies" at a concert given in the camp on February 13th.
 
Schlesinger is later thanked by B. J. D. in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) for his recent musical perfomance at the camp:
"...Mr. Arthur Dodd, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Williams, Mr. Philips, Mr. Schlesinger and others, who, in solo and ensemble work, have given of their best."
 
 

Felix Schlesinger
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/189 on Felix Schlesinger, namely on enquiries regarding his transfer or release. This may be the above named Schlesinger.
 
 

Frederick Forbes Schlomka
 
The National Archives holds records from 1915 at FO383/79 regarding Frederick Forbes Schlomka, a British subject interned at Ruhleben, namely regarding an enquiry from his father, Dr. Clemens Schlomka, a teacher in Glasgow, regarding possible relief for his son's two children, with a suggestion that representations be made to the Society of Schoolmasters.
 
 

Arthur Frederick Schmid
 
Arthur Frederick Schmid was born in Lamberth, England, on August 8th 1877, of German parents. After emigrating with his wife to America, he returned to Germany in approximately 1908. By 1914 he and his family were living in Munich, and when war broke out in August 1914, he was arrested and interned in Ruhleben, his crime being that he had been born in England and had spent several years in the States. He was interned at Barrack 7, Box 12, for the duration of the war.
 
Arthur's story, and two well researched articles on camp life in Ruhleben entitled Hell Could Not Be Worse: Ruhleben Camp 1914-1918 (Parts 1 and 2) were written by Arthur's grandson, Eric. F. R. Smith, and published in two editions of Family Tree Magazine, October 2004, Vol. 20, No. 12, and November 2004, Vol. 20, No. 13.
 
 

Arthur Schneider
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/56 regarding a request by Arthur J. Speer, of London, for assistance to send remittances to Mrs. Lotte Schneider, the wife of his business partner, Arthur Schneider, who was interned as a British civil prisoner at Ruhleben.
 
 

Ernest Schneider
 
The National Archives in London holds documents from 1915 at FO383/37 relating to Ernest Schneider, a British civilian prisoner of war at Ruhleben.
 
 

Otto Schneider
 
Otto Schneider is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Schneider is recorded as having been born on July 20th 1897 in London, and is described as having been an engineer prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 73 Cromwell Road, Wimbledon, London, S.W. At the time the register was recorded, Schneider was noted as staying in loft A, having been there since his arrival on May 9th 1916 from Leipzig.
 
Schneider is also recorded as having spent some time in the Bird Cage between February 28th 1918 and March 3rd.
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 regarding enquiries by Schneider's father.
 
 

Schofield
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 regarding an enquiry from Mrs Schofield about her husband in Ruhleben.
 
 
A. Schofield
 
A. Schofield was noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Schofield was a merchant seaman on board the Duke of Wellington, and interned in Barrack 17.
 
 

John Robert Schofield (30/6/1870 - 17/11/1926)
 
John Robert Schofield is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Schofield is recorded as having been born on June 30th 1870 in Manchester, and is described as having been a workds manager prior to his internment. His home address was listed as the Post Office, Cleveleys, Nr. Blackpool. At the time the register was recorded, Schofield was noted as staying in loft A. He returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
Schofield was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". 
 
In April 2007, John's great granddaughter Patty Schofield contacted me with the following information on him (many thanks Patty!):
John Robert Schofield was living and working in Germany for a British company that owned mills in England and Germany. He resided in the Rodenkirchen section of Cologne.  As far as my uncle recalls, after his incarceration,the rest of the family returned to England through Holland. My grandfather, John Robert's son Thomas, missed incarceration either because he was just a bit too young, b. 24 Aug. 1899, or may have returned to England to attend school. Apparently during the school year he resided with his father's sister, returning to Germany for the summers.

Another Ruhleben survivor mentioned on your website, Joseph Gresty, worked with John Robert Schofield and I believe lived near, or possibly in the same building as the Schofields in Cologne. After the war, both men left England in 1921 with their entire families and relocated in Rhode Island. John Schofield became superintendant of the Arkwright Finishing Company, a textile mill owned by the Interlaken Company. I believe the English branch was known as Winterbottom, the German branch as Peterworks and it was Interlaken over here but I have yet to verify this information. My father (also John Robert) and my uncle Raymond used to play in the Arkwright mill, (Kent County, W.Warwick -I think this was the town- Rhode Island) with Gresty's children.  The Ellis Island website has a record of their journey. They departed from Liverpool 10 Sept 1921 on the SS Baltic arriving in New York 19 Sept.1921. John Robert Schofield did not enjoy longevity.
John eventually passed away in Rhode Island in 1926.
 
 

John Schofield, undated, at front with wife Mary Alice. Behind are children Thomas, Alice and Frank

 
Frank William Scholes
 
Frank William Scholes was the Berlin representative of Mather and Platt, a Manchester engineering firm dealing mainly, at that time, with fire sprinklers. He had been living in Berlin from at least 1905, and his daughter was born there, and was duly arrested when the war broke out. He may in fact also be the same gentleman as the H. Scholes listed in the next entry, as he was a Manchester man himself - as his granddaughter Catherine Miller recently pointed out, it does seem a heck of a coincidence that two different people by the name of Scholes knew a lot about fire extinguishers on ships!
 
Scholes was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p. 16) as having given a lecture to the M.E.A. Circle entitled "Fire Extinguishing Plant for Steamers".
 
The Liddel Collection at Leeds University holds items relating to Scholes internment, at RUH 49, placed in the collection by Arthur and Mary Scholes in 1978. These are bound issues of 'In Ruhleben Camp', with 'The Ruhleben Bye-Election' (June to December 1915); bound issues of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (March 1916 to June 1917), 'La Vie Francaise de Ruhleben' (April to July 1916) and prospectuses of work for the autumn and summer terms at Ruhleben Camp School (1916-1917); and five Christmas cards from 1914 to 1918.
 
An F. Scholes was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was Woodlea, Cleveleys. Blackpool.
 
 

H. Scholes
 
H. Scholes was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.16) as having given a nautical lecture on "Prevention of Fire at Sea".
 
Scholes is further recorded in the second issue of the magazine (April 1916, p.15) as being soon to give another lecture to the school entitled "A Chat on the Manchester Ship Canal".
 
Elizabeth Beasley, daughter of Ruhleben prisoner Jack Griggs, sent the following in November 2007, for which I am grateful:
One of Jack's books is covered with the wrapping from a Red Cross parcel, the contents of which were described as "eatables and candles".  It was addressed to "H. Scholes, Barrack 7, Box 21".  The senders were noted as Messrs Mather and Platt, Queen Anne Chambers, Westminster.
 
J. Scholl
 
Direktor J Scholl, of Barrack 5 box 22, sent a postcard written in German to a company in Rudolstadt, requesting a copy of its catalogue of games, as he would like to buy some of them. The card was dated 11 Nov 1915. Many thanks to Jim Mackay, who holds the card, for this information in December 2007.

 

Wilhelm Schonhut
 
Wilhelm Schonhut is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Schonhut is recorded as having been born on April 9th 1892 in Parkgate, Yorkshire, and is described as having been a student prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Broad Street, Park Gate, Rotherham. At the time the register was recorded, Schonhut was noted as staying in loft B.
 
Schonhut is also recorded as having spent some time in the Bird Cage between January 28th 1918 and January 31st.
 

The following description of life for Wilhelm's family in Yorkshire during his internment comes from "Germans in Sheffield 1817 – 1918" by Dr. Gerald Newton and published in "German Life and Letters" (ISSN 0016-8777), Vol. 46 No.1, 1993 by Blackwell Publishers, 108 Cowley St., Oxford. Many thanks to David O' Neill for supplying this information in December 2006:

Beginning in Liverpool and spreading to the East End, anti-German riots eventually spread to the Sheffield area and on Monday 10 May 1915 at Mexborough, the shop of George Schonhut, pork butcher and local councilor, was destroyed by a rioting crowd.

 

The next day, the shop of George Schonhut, at Denaby Main, also the house of his brother in law Mr. Wedgewood (mineral water manufacturer, Mexborough) and also the shop of Frederick Schonhut (born in Goole in 1877 and quarter cousin of George Schonhut) at Goldthorpe, Barnsley came under attack. The crowds at Goldthorpe gathered on the grounds that “in addition to rejoicing over the disaster to the Lusitania, F. Schonhut had also been ill-using his wife and sending bundles of hams away with messages inside”.

 

On Friday, 14 May 1915, rioters attacked the premises of various pork butchers in Attercliffe, including those of George Hannemann. The following night police were stoned and a pitched battle broke out in Rotherham near the Red Lion Inn, owned by Tennant Bros. Of Sheffield, but kept shortly before by one of the Schonhut family. On 18 May, it was the turn of George Limbach to have his premises destroyed by rioters.

 

On 8 June 1915, the bulk of the petty theft charges arising out of the Goldthorpe Riots were heard at Doncaster: 46 defendants, men, women and several girls were summoned on two charges each… The goods included “one diamond scarf pin, flitches of bacon and ham from Schonhuts….”  On 6 July 1915, the final rioters were fined, one man for theft of a dynamo at Goldthorpe.

 

George Schonhut, whose shop at Mexborough had been destroyed on 10 May, was summoned at Doncaster for failing to register as an enemy alien. Despite having served in the 1890s in the Queens Own Yorkshire Dragoons, he was fined 5 pounds. He later appears to have lost his seat on the Mexborough Urban Council and to have been interned, aged 55, “with no prospect of freedom”.

  

A similar fate had long since befallen another member of the Schonhut family in that W. Schonhut, by a bizarre turn of fate had found himself interned as a British alien in Germany, at the detention camp at Ruhleben, a converted trotting track near Berlin.

 

In May, George Limbach, (in his 60s) whose premises had just been destroyed,  was arrested on a charge of failing to notify his change of address to the police.

 

In October 1916, George Schonhut’s 26 year-old son was refused exemption by a Military Tribunal and had to join the forces.

 

 

Charles Schulden

 

From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Charles Schulden is noted as being from Lindenthal, Cologne, and as having been born in Birmingham in 1876. He worked as a business manager in Cologne, where he was arrested on 5 SEP 1914. After a brief period held in Cologne he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.

 

 

Bernhard Schumacher

 

From a photo of a National Archives file from collection MT9, supplied by Marcus Bateman in March 2007, it is known that on November 30th 1916, internee Bernhard Schumacher (of the Tea House) was allowed to go on indefinite leave from the camp, to visit Berlin Wilmersdorf. (Camp Changes, Supplement 10). Many thanks to Marcus. 

 

 

Will Scotch

 

Will Scotch is noted as having been in Barrack 17 on an order for a newspaper dated 13 NOV 1915, now held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).

 

Arthur Alexander Scott
 
Arthur Alexander Scott is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Scott is recorded as having been born on February 7th 1876 in Bow, and is described as having been a chauffeur prior to his internment. His home address was listed as St. Quentin. At the time the register was recorded, Scott was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 6 on December 7th 1915.
 
Between October 13th and November 19th 1917, Scott spent some time in Lazarett, and between May 18th 1918 and June 2nd he was recorded in the camp's Schonungsbaracke.
 
 

George V. Scott
 
The National Archives in London hold records from 1915 at FO383/75 regarding an enquiry from Mrs. Ella Scott, a German-born citizen, of Charing Cross Road, London, about her husband, George V. Scott, a British subject interned at Ruhleben, on the question of possible additional relief assistance.
 
 

H. G. Scott
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/48 regarding an enquiry made by interned seaman H. G. Scott regarding his wages.
 
 
James H. Scott
 
James H. Scott was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Throughout his stay he was interned in Barrack 11. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman. 
 
 
John Scott
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that John Scott was from 244 South Palmerston Street, South Shields, and that he was born in Shields on 19 OCT 1888. He was a ship's steward arrested in Hamburg on 31 JUL 1914, and after a brief imprisonment in Hamburg was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

R. Scott
 
Scott was named in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p. 32) as being a recent inclusion to the camp's Barbarians rugby team. He also played for the Blackheath squad.
 
It is also presumed, though not confirmed, that R. Scott was the Scott noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing A side in a second division match between the A team and the B team on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 

Seale
 
Amongst the inmates giving lectures at Ruhleben, Francis Gribble, in his essay "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook", recorded
"Mr. Seale, who had spent most of his life manufacturing locomotives at Tubize,near Brussels, was one of many teachers who took classes in French."
 
 

H. A. Searle
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/25 concerning a request for an exchange for H. A. Searle, an English civilian prisoner interned at Ruhleben, as an invalid.
 
 
Thomas Seddon
 
Thomas Seddon was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Throughout his stay he was interned in Barrack 11. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
Seddon was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Oberlichtenau-by-Chemnitz.
 
 

M. Seehorf/Sechoff
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/60 regarding the South African subjects detained at Ruhleben, and an enquiry regarding steps being taken for their release, from one of the South Africans, Mr. M. Seehorf.
 
The archives also contain further documents from 1915 at FO383/71 concerning M. Sechoff, interned at Ruhleben, namely a claim for compensation for damage and losses to his property in South Africa during anti-German demonstrations. It would seem that they are one and the same person, with one entry suffering from a typo.
 
 
Frank L. Seely
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Frank L. Seely was noted as being from 16 Hall Aves, Cambridge, and as having been born in Cambridge in 1888. He worked as a teacher and was arrested in Bremen on 6 NOV 1914. After a brief period held in Bremen, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 

Louis Segal
 
Louis Segal is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Segal is recorded as having been born on June 2nd 1887 in Plungiang Nr Kourno, and is described as having been a "Cand . Med" prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 5 Paul Heysestrasse, Munich. At the time the register was recorded, Segal was noted as staying in box 26, having been there since his arrival from Doberitz on May 3rd 1916.
 
 

Sehaber
 
Sehaber was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

Karl Seligmann
 
Karl Seligmann was born in Ichenhausen, Bavaria in 1838, and died in 1934, in Nieuwe Plaats, South Africa. the following information has been provided by his relative Adam Yamey, to whom I am indebted:
 
"It would appear that Karl returned to Germany, and was interned there as an Enemy Alien after the outbreak of WW1. In 1918 he applied for a British Passport.  A letter from the Governor General's office in Pretoria addressed to Walter Long at the Colonial Office in London refers to " … the application of Mr. Karl Seligmann, at present interned at Ruhleben for a British passport" (NASA SAB GG/708/9/133/155 1918).  When he was interned is not known but according to a letter from London, dated 8th May 1918 his name, "…appears on a printed list of prisoners at Ruhleben received early in 1915, and he was therefore probably interned in February 1915, when most Colonial British subjects in Germany were interned at Ruhleben" (NASA SAB GG/708/9/133/155 1918). The passport was issued in 1918."
 
 
R. Sellers
 
R. Sellers was noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Sellers was a merchant seaman on board the Saxon Prince, and interned in Barrack 15.
 
 

J. Semple
 
J. Semple, of Grimsby, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Joseph (or John) Sermin
 
Joseph Sermin is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Sermin is recorded as having been born on September 20th 1887 in Sheffield, and is described as having been a jeweller prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 49 Harcourt Road, Sheffield. At the time the register was recorded, Sermin was noted as staying in Loft A. He may have been the brother of Victor Sermin.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Sermin (noted as John, rather than Joseph) is noted as being from 49 Harcourt Road, Sheffield, and as having been born in Sheffield in 1887. He worked as a jeweller in Neustadt, where he was arrested on 6 NOV 1914. After a brief period held in Neustadt and Plotzensee, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 
Victor Sermin
 
Victor Sermin is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Sermin is recorded as having been born on March 24th 1897 in Sheffield, and is described as having been a watchmaker prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 12/14 Watson's Walk, Sheffield. At the time the register was recorded, Sermin was noted as staying in loft A. He may have been the brother of Joseph Sermin.
 
Sermin is also recorded as having spent some time in the Bird Cage between February 20th 1918 and February 23rd.
 
 

Charles Seton
 
Charles Seton was one of sixteen men released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Times of January 29th 1917 ("Changed Conditions in Germany", p.8, col. G).
 
 
C. C. Sewell
 
C. C. Sewell was noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Sewell was a merchant seaman on board the Euclid, and interned in Barrack 17.
 
 

William Robinson Shann
 
William Robinson Shann is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Shann is recorded as having been born on January 18th 1883 in Pately Bridge, Yorkshire, and is described as having been an engineer prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Dunster Villa, Bulwer Road, New Barnet. At the time the register was recorded, Shann was noted as staying in box 10.
 
 

J. Shatwell
 
J. Shatwell was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 94 Hamilton Street, Ashton-under-Lyne.
 
Shatwell was a British jockey working in Hoppegarten who was interned in Ruhleben at the beginning of November 1914, as noted in the Scotsman on 9/11/1914 (p.9), and in The Times of the same day ("British Interned in Germany", p. 7, col. E).
 
Shatwell had 115 rides and 8 wins in 1914 thus putting him on #18 in
the winners statistics (with thanks to Jochem Heicke in Germany).
 

Shaw
 
This Mr. Shaw was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

B. Shaw
 
B. Shaw, of South Shields, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
Harry Shaw
 
Harry Shaw was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Rigters Bleek, Meltham, Huddersfield.
 
 

P. M. Shaw
 
P. M. Shaw was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
Shaw was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 69 Wellington Street W., Hr. Brighton.
 
Shaw was also noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916) as the chariman of the M.E.A. Circle, and as soon to be giving a lecture to the circle entitled "Practical Fuel Economy". In the second issue of the magazine, Shaw is noted as having resigned from the circle, to be replaced by Peter Thomson.
 
Shaw was also a contributing artist to the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917).
 
 
Sidney F. Sheasby
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Sidney F. Sheasby was from Market Harborough in England, and was born in Northampton in August 1889. He was a ship's officer, and was arrested in Hamburg in August 1914, and after a brief period of imprisonment on the hulks, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
 

Frank Shelmerdin
 
Frank Shelmerdin is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Shelmerdin is recorded as having been born on April 18th 1874 in Manchester, and is described as having been a clerk prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Altrincham, Manchester. At the time the register was recorded, Shelmerdin was noted as staying in box 21. He moved to Holland on March 22nd 1918.
 
 

Kenneth J. Shennan
 
Kenneth J. Shennan is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Shennan is recorded as having been born on December 27th 1882 in Abergele, North Wales, and is described as having been a bank official prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Hamburg, Ness 1. At the time the register was recorded, Shennan was noted as staying in loft A, having been there since his arrival from Hamburg on July 1st 1915.
 
 
Ernest Shepherd
 
Ernest Shepherd was second engineer on the 'Seaham Harbour', and was originally from 10 Clarence Street, Seaham Harbour. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Throughout his stay he was interned in Barrack 9. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

Samuel Sheppard
 
Samuel Sheppard was a greaser on the 'Duns Law', and was originally from 30 Aberystwith Street, Cardiff. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Throughout his stay he was interned in Barrack 11. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 
C. J. Sherry
 
C. J. Sherry was one of the internees photographed with the Ruhleben Parcel Post - see Alfred Hazell King's entry for the image.
 
 
James Shepperd
 
James Shepperd is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Shepperd is recorded as having been born on March 12th 1897 in Aberdeen, and is described as having been a seaman on the "Rubislan" prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 38 Watson Street, Aberdeen. At the time the register was recorded, Shepperd was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 22a on July 15th 1917.
 
 

R. H. Sherwood
 
R. H. Sherwood, of Goole, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

William George Shiell

The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 regarding William George Shiell, concerning his release for medical treatment at Bad Nauheim, and transmission of money to him at Ruhleben from his mother.

A W. T. Shiell was recorded in the Times of July 8th 1916 ("Back from Germany", p.7, col.A) as arriving at Gravesend on July 7th 1916, having been released from Ruhleben.
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University holds a photocopy of a published book "A Tour in the Bavarian Alps" by W. G. Shiell, placed in the collection by his daughter Mary Montague in April 1978, under reference RUH 50.
 
 

Shilling
 
Shilling was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

W. Shilson
 
W. Shilson is listed in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having made some carved bone watch chains, his efforts photographed for the magazine as a specimen of camp craftsmanship.
 
 

Clarence B. Short
 
The following watercolour sketch of the S.S. Treglisson was painted by merchant seaman Clarence B. Short in Ruhleben, in 1915. It was created within the autograph book of another inmate, W. F. Pinn (Barrack XI, box 7), now in the ownership of Paul Bayliss who supplied copies to me in July 2006, and to whom I am extremely grateful. 

S.S. Treglisson by Clarence Short, painted 1915

 
 
Gordon Short
 
Gordon Short was noted in the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.14) as having recently performed at a concert in the camp:
Mr. Gordon Short, a gifted pianist hailing from Australia, was responsible for the arrangement of the Concert on April 2nd).
Another example of Short's contribution to camp life is recorded in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.25):
Other prospective events include a recital by Messrs. Keel and Lindsay, a chamber concert, arranged by Mr. Short, at which Ed. Schutt's Suite for Violin and Pianoforte and some Two-pianoforte music will be brought forward.
Short was also listed in the same issue as to soon be giving two lecture for the Arts and Science Union:
The present arrangements include two lectures by Mr. Short on the Development of Chamber Music, with musical illustrations on each occasion, while Mr. Leigh Henry, Mr. Hunt and Mr. Weber are respectively undertaking similar evenings on works of Debussy, MacDowell and Verdi.

Short's acting ability was noted further still (p.34), when he appeared in the play "Flachsmann als Erzieher".

The latter's (Short's) version was of course quite wrong, though very funny, but this did not matter much, the satirical possibilities of the play having already been ruined by the author's romantic treatment of the hero and his melodramatisation of the schoolmaster.

Short was thanked in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) for another perfomance at the camp:
The work of our principal pianists and vocalists has already been refeerred to appreciateively in these notes - one must not forget to add the names of Mr. Gordon Short and Mr. Sumner Austin, whose playing and singing have always been highly appreciated..."
 
 

F. Shurgold
 
F. Shurgold was a British jockey working in Hoppegarten who was interned in Ruhleben at the beginning of November 1914, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper on 9/11/1914 (p.9), and in The Times of the same day ("British Interned in Germany", p. 7, col. E).
 
In April 2008 I receieved the following additional information from Jochem Heicke in Germany, for which I am indebted:
F. Shurgold, was # 4 Jockey in 1914 with 22 wins out of 122 rides. He possibly is the jockey "Fred" mentioned in Piggott's entry.
 

R. Simcock
 
R. Simcock was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 14 Commercial Road, Liverpool.
 
Simcock was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the winning B side in a second division match between the A team and the B team, on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 

Simmonds
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/64 regarding Mrs. Grace Simmonds, the wife of a British subject detained at Ruhleben, and the question of her inability to pay insurance policies following her husband's detention, with a request for assistance.
 
 

W. H. Simmonds
 
W. H. Simmonds, of Tunbridge Wells, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Edward Simmons
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Edward Simmonds was resident in Belmont, Surrey, was born in London on 1875, and was a teacher arrested in Berlin and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
Simmons is also recorded in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14) as having played for Barrack 2 in the Ruhleben Cricket League of 1915. He is noted as having bowled well for his team, and as having also played for the Varsities team against the Rest of Ruhleben.
 
 

Philip Frederic William Simon
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/27 regarding Philip Frederic William Simon, namely with regard to an enquiry from his wife, Mrs. Augusta Simon of Queen's Gate.
 
The seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp carried the following announcement (Sep 1915, p.26):
Mr P. F. W. Simon has been appointed Captain of Barrack No. 7 in the place of Mr C. A. Hallam who has retired from the post. Our thanks go to Mr. Hallam for his valuable services in the interests of the Camp.
In an article in the Scotsman newspaper of October 27th 1915, Simon was listed as captain of Barrack 7 ("Ruhleben Camp - Success of Civil Administration", p.9).
 
From Marcus Bateman's notes from the National Archives file MT9/1238, we learn that Simon was known to have been released on March 6th 1918, and confirmed as having been resident in Barrack 7.
 
 

William Simpson
 
The National Arcives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/68 regarding conditions at Ruhleben, and an interview with William Simpson, recently released from the camp.
 
 

Peter Sinclair
 
Peter Sinclair was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 
Max Singer
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Max Singer was noted as being from 92 St. Mary's Mansion, Paddington, and as having been born in London in 1896. He worked as an apprentice and was arrested in Bremen on 6 NOV 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7. 
 
 
S. Sinnatt
 
S. Sinnatt was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 14 Commercial Road, Liverpool.
 
 
C. Sinyard
 
C. Sinyard was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 80 Ennismore Road, Stanley, Liverpool.
 
 

Charles Sivier
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/50 regarding the effects of four British seamen detained at Ruhleben, namely Charles Sivier, A. Reilly, John Lewins, and E. W. Henderson, all formerly of the S.S. Monitoria. The documents regard the payment of the balance of their wages, arrangements for the delivery of their effects, and an investigation into their subsequent non-delivery, leading to the question of responsibility for their losses and possible compensation.
 
 

J. Skivington
 
J. Skivington was a contributing cartoonist to issue six of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917).
 
 

Slade
 
Slade was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the winning Cameron's XI side against Brearley's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to the Cameron team.
 
A picture of Slade at Ruhleben can be viewed online at Steve Bloomer's Farewell Match.
 
 

Frank Slade
 
Frank Slade was one of the jockeys from Hoppegarten interned in November 1914, as reported in The Times of the November 9th 1918 ("British Interned in Germany", p. 7, col. E).
 
Slade was also mentioned as an inmate at Ruhleben in an article in the Scotsman newspaper of January 28th 1916, entitled "Racecourse Chat" p.9). In response to the parcels sent to some of the Ruhleben inmates by the jockey club in Britain, the following was recorded of a postcard received back in England from Slade:
Here is one from Frank Slade, another jockey who was making his 1000 a year in Belgium when the war broke out:- "Just a line to thank our friends for the parcel so kindly sent, and I appreciate the kindness very much of thinking of us."
In April 2008 I received the following additional information from Jochem Heicke in Germany, for which I am indebted:
F. Slade, was # 3 jockey in 1914 with 24 wins out of 142 rides. He rode in 1914 for Hoppegarten trainer Pan Horalek the winner of the Bavarian Derby and the Cologne Spring Handicap (owner Freiherr O. von Richthofen). I am a little bit confused about *Frank* Slade, as jockey in Belgium, but it is possible that he rode on the race courses in the Rhineland and was based in Belgium after July 1914.
 

Frank Arthur James Slater
 
Frank Arthur James Slater is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Slater is recorded as having been born on December 4th 1889 in Liverpoool, and is described as having been a correspondent prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Weinlig Str. 4 III, Dresden 1. At the time the register was recorded, Slater was noted as staying in box 27.
 
 

William Slater
 
The National Archives hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 concerning the death of William Slater whilst interned in Ruhleben.
 
 

Eric Sloan
 
The National Archives in London hold doucments from 1915 at FO383/25 relating to Lawrence Sloan and Eric Sloan, British subjects internned in Ruhleben. The documents concern the possible release of the two in connection with an exchange of consular officers. Further documents are held at FO383/26 regarding their possible exchange as invalid civilians, and which includes a letter from Lawrence describing their conditions.
 
 

Lawrence Barringer Sloan
 
The National Archives in London hold doucments from 1915 at FO383/25 relating to Lawrence Sloan and Eric Sloan, British subjects interned in Ruhleben. The documents concern the possible release of the two in connection with an exchange of consular officers. Further documents are held at FO383/26 regarding their possible exchange as invalid civilians, and which includes a letter from Lawrence describing their conditions.
 
The following death notice was carried by The Times of September 26th 1918:
SLOAN - On the 23rd Sept., suddenly (after 3 1/2 years internment at Ruhleben), LAWRENCE BARRINGER (BARRY), the dearly loved son of LAWRENCE and EDITH SLOAN, of 19, Heath Drive, Hampstead, aged 27.
 
 

R. Sloper
 
R. Sloper was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Harry Slyfield
 
Harry Slyfield is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Slyfield is recorded as having been born on September 18th 1883 in Crowborough, and is described as having been a nagsman prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Mile Oak Farm, Fazeley, Tamworth, Staffordshire. At the time the register was recorded, Slyfield was noted as staying in box 11, having transferred there from the Tea House on April 19th 1915. he moved to Holland on April 25th 1918.
 
 

Smallshaw
 
Smallshaw was in the Barrack 20 football team at Ruhleben, and according to issue six of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) played in the cup final in April 1917. The first leg was a scoreless draw, and in the rematch three days later, Barrack 20 won, 3-0.
 
Smallshaw's membership of Barrack 20 was also confirmed in the prior issue, five (Christmas 1916, p.58).
 
 

Smith
 
This unnamed Smith was interned in Barrack 8 and played for the barrack football team against Barrack 20 in the RFA cup final in April 1917, as noted in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917). The first match was a draw, 1-1. In the replay, three days later, Barrack 8 lost, 3-0.
 
 

A. Smith
 
A. Smith was noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Smith was a merchant seaman on board the Euclid, and interned in Barrack 15.
 
 
Alexander T. Smith
 
Alexander T. Smith was one of four gentlemen to have sent the Provost of Leith a postcard from Ruhleben in December 1914, as recorded in the Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.6). The other signatories were D. G. Munro, R. H. A. Mackie and Matthew Duncan.
 
 
Claude Smith
 
Claude Smith was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 35 year old artist who had been working in Spandau.
 
It is possible that he was also the Smith listed in another file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 
Ernest Smith
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Ernest Smith was from 12 Fairmont Road, Grimsby, and was born in Morton in 1876. He was a fireman arrested in Hamburg on 3 AUG 1914. After a spell on the hulks he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Eugen Smith
 
The Scotsman newspaper reported on March 9th 1916 that Eugen Smith, an American gentleman from Springfield, Massachussetts, had been released from Ruhleben a couple of days earlier, after a six month internment in the camp ("Released from Ruhleben", p.5).
 
 

F. H. Smith
 
F. H. Smith was noted in the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp as being the requisites manager for the camp's school, and is described as F. H. Smith B.A. (Cantab). (Sep 1915, p.17).
 
He is also noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.16) as having given a nautical lecture entitled "Dangerous Chemicals as Cargo".
 
The second issue of the magazine (April 1916, p.15) recorded a forthcoming nautical lecture to be given by a Mr. Smith on the theme of "Magnetic Experiments with Demonstartions".  
 
 

George Stanley Smith
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/73 regarding George Stanley Smith, a British subject formerly interned at Ruhleben, subsequently held in Stadtvogtei Prison, Berlin. The documents hold enquiries into the reasons for his transfer, and a report that he was sentenced to six weeks imprisonment for submitting a false birth certificate.
 
 

Henry Smith
 
Henry Smith is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Smith is recorded as having been born on June 1st 1864 in Liverpool, and is described as having been a teacher prior to his internment. His home address was listed as c/o Mr Bradley Welch, Hartford National Bank Buildings, Hartford, USA. At the time the register was recorded, Sermin was noted as staying in Box 4. He returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
He may also be the H. Smith noted as being in Barrack 14 on a postcard dated 10 JAN 1916, now held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria, which noted him in Barrack 14 (with thanks to Dr. Heber). 
 
 
Herbert Smith
 
Herbert Smith was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 23 year old engineer who had been working in Berlin.
 
It is possible that he was also the Smith listed in another file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 

J. H. Smith
 
J. H. Smith is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Smith was a merchant seaman on board the S. S. Castro, and interned in Barrack 3 box 7.
 
 
James Smith
 
The National Archives in London holds records from 1915 at FO383/77 regarding Mrs. Elina Sara Smith, in St Thomas, Danish West Indies, specifically information from her husband, James Smith, described as a 'coloured' British subject interned in Ruhleben, regarding her destitute condition and a request for relief for her.
 
 
Percy Smith
 
Percy Smith was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Sabdurst, Glen Eldon Road, St. Ans.
 
 
S. Smith
 
S. Smith was noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Smith was a merchant seaman on board the Inverawe, and interned in Barrack 3, loft.
 
 

W. C. Smith
 
The National Archives in London hold records from 1915 at FO383/74 concerning W. C. Smith, a British subject interned at Ruhleben, with regard to the question of his leaving the camp for an operation.
 
 

Johannes Smuts
 
The National Archives in London contains documents from 1916 at FO383/194 concerning remittances to be sent to prisoner Johannes Smuts, interned at Ruhleben.
 
 

Robert Maire Smyllie
 
Robert Maire Smyllie is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Smyllie is recorded as having been born on March 20th 1893 in Shettleston, Scotland, and is described as having been a university student prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Primrose Grange, Sligo, Ireland. At the time the register was recorded, Smyllie was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 21 on August 4th 1915.
 
Smyllie was one of the camp's Society of Irish Players, and the Times of January 8th 1917 complimented a play that he and fellow inmate William Jackson had co-written, entitled "The Night of the Wake", which was so successful that "it had to be repeated twice" (Irish Players at Ruhleben", p.11, col.F). 
 
Smyllie is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between July 9th 1918 and July 11th.
 
As well as his work with the Irish Players, Smyllie was further responsible for producing the Ruhleben fortnightly newsletter. After the war, in 1934, he became the editor of the Irish Times.
 
 

Smyth
 
Smyth was named in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p. 32) as being a member of the camp's Blackheath rugby team.
 
 

Eduard Snowman
 
Eduard Snowman is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Snowman is recorded as having been born on May 25th 1886 in Hamburg, and is described as having been a clerk prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Gesundbr. 14, Hamburg. At the time the register was recorded, Snowman was noted as staying in box 21, having transferred there from the Tea House on April 19th 1915. His brother Hermann was also interned in the barrack.
 
Snowman is also recorded as having gone on leave on March 30th 1918. No return date was listed.
 
 
Hermann Ernst Wilhelm Snowman
 
Hermann Ernst Wilhelm Snowman is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Snowman is recorded as having been born on December 22nd 1883 in Hamburg, and is described as having been an engineer prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Gesundbr. 14, Hamburg. At the time the register was recorded, Snowman was noted as staying in box 21. His brother Eduard was also interned in the barrack.
 
 
W. A. Sock
 
W. A. Sock was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 75 Harrowby Street, Prince's Park, Liverpool.
 
 

Harry Walter Solloway
 
Harry Walter Solloway is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Solloway is recorded as having been born on November 22nd 1885 in Vienna, and is described as having been a chauffeur prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 1 Pattison Road, Childs Hill, Hampstead. At the time the register was recorded, Solloway was noted as staying in loft B. He returned to Holland on March 22nd 1918.
 
 

F. L. M. Somerville
 
F. L. M. Somerville, of Hull, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

J. Somerville
 
J. Somerville, of Hull, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Charles William Stanley Sonderman
 
Charles William Stanley Sonderman is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Sonderman is recorded as having been born on January 10th 1897 in London, and is described as having been a clerk prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 121 Stapleton Hall Road, Stroud Green, N. At the time the register was recorded, Sonderman was noted as staying in Box 3.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Sonderman is noted as being from 121 Stapleton Hall Road, Stroud Green, and as having been born in Stroud Green in 1897. He worked as a correspondent in Cologne, where he was arrested on 5 SEP 1914. After a brief period held in Cologne he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 

Walter S. Songhurst
 
Walter S. Songhurst is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Songhurst is recorded as having been born on August 14th 1880 in Walthamstow, and is described as having been a bank official prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Hamburg Adolphaplatz 3. At the time the register was recorded, Songhurst was noted as staying in loft A, having been there since his arrival from Hamburg on July 1st 1915. On June 6th 1918, he moved to Barrack 7.
 
 
Harry L. Southern
 
Harry L. Southern was one of the internees photographed with the Ruhleben Parcel Post - see Alfred Hazell King's entry for the image.
 
Harry was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 2 Collinwood Road, Slade Lane, Levenshulme.
 
 

J. E. Sparks
 
J. E. Sparks was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 49 Sewerby Street, Moss Side, Manchester.
 
As 'Sparkes', of Manchester, he is noted as one of fifteen men released from Ruhleben who arrived in neutral Holland on June 7th 1916, in the Times of June 8th 1916 ("War Weariness in Germany", p.7, col.C).
 
 

Arthur Speak
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Arthur Speak is noted as being from 19 Heywood Road, Casdtleton, and as having been born in Keighleigh in 1878. He was an engineer in Munchen-Gladbach, where he was arrested on 1 SEP 1914. After a brief period held in Munchen-Gladback and Cologne, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
Arthur Speak is also listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Speak is recorded as having been born on June 20th 1878 in Keighley, Yorkshire, and is described as having been a fitter prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 19 Heywood Road, Castleton, Manchester. At the time the register was recorded, Snowman was noted as staying in box 6. he relocated to Holland on April 25th 1918.
 
Arthur was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". 
 
 

Arthur Speed
 
Arthur Speed was recorded in The Times as being about to give a concert at the Ruhleben Exhibition on Friday, February 7th, with fellow former Ruhleben musicians, all of whom had been professional musicians captured in Bayreuth. The article appeared on January 30th 1919 in the Times ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.11, col. F).
 
From Marcus Bateman we learn that Speed was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Throughout his stay he was interned in Barrack 2. Many thanks to Marcus.
 
 
E. D. Spencer
 
E. D. Spencer was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Sycamores, Blackburn.
 
 
Herbert Spencer
 
Herbert Spencer was first engineer on the 'Coburg', and was originally from 8 Annadale Street, Edinburgh. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Throughout his stay he was interned in Barrack 4. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

Leslie Spicer
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 regarding the possible release of Ruhleben inmate Leslie Spicer as a missionary worker. Further documents are held at FO383/66 on Spicer, where he is again noted as a British missionary employee interned at Ruhleben. FO383/69 lists details of biscuits supplied to Spicer.
 
He was congratulated for his efforts in issue seven of In Ruhleben Camp (Sep. 1915, p. 6) for his efforts in editing and publishing the Souvenir Election magazine. On page 40 of the same magazine, Spicer made an announcement that the authorities had requested that all letters should be typewritten in order for them to be made easier to censor! As manager of the Printing Department, he offered his department's services at the cost of 15 pfennigs per page, and stated that letetrs that needed to be typed should be deposited with him between 11am and 12.00pm, with the job being completed by the following day. 
 
In the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, back cover), we also learn that Spicer was the camp's printer:
RUHLEBEN PRINTING WORKS
All camp printing and duplicating done at No.2 Fleet Street. For terms apply to the Camp Printer, L. Spicer.
 

Fred Spiksley
 
Clive Nicholson contacted me in November 2007 to inform me that his great uncle, a famous English footballer called fred Spiksley, was interned at Ruhleben, and played in the Oldham v Tottenham match of 1914.
 
 

James Leonard Spong
 
J. L. Spong was recorded in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.45) as being one of the better of the new members of the Ruhleben Tennis Association.
 
From James' great niece Keren Hancox, the following was received via a guestbook entry to this site in October 2007:
I have always been intrigued by my great uncles time in prison. I found letters from him in my grandmothers papers and correspondence from the American Ambassador who was acting for him .James Leonard Spong was captured in Holland on his way home from an engineering project he got back home to England after the war and continued his life. He did not have children so my brothers and I are his direct descendants and have many of his papers.
Many thanks to Keren.
 
 

M. W. Spoor
 
M. W. Spoor was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
Spoor is listed in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having made a model steam yacht, with his effort photographed for the publication as an example of camp craftsmanship.
 
He would also appear to be the 'M. W. Sport' noted as having been in the Teahouse on a postcard dated 10 DEC 1915, a photocopy of which is held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

John Herbert Spottiswoode

The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO 383/22 on the possible exchange of John Herbert Spottiswoode and Joseph R. Weston, British subjects interned at Ruhleben.

 

Charles Sprague
 
Charles Sprague's signature was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth on May 24th 1915, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
 

Harry Stafford
 
Harry Stafford is noted in the first issue of The Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.8) as having appeared in the 1915 Christmas pantomime in the camp.
 
In the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p.8), Stafford is listed as having performed as Patsy Farrell in the Irish Players' rendition of the play "John Bull's Other Island". He was also sketched for the magazine in this role.
 
The National Archives of London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 concerning an enquiry from Mrs. Ada Brundell about her brothers, Frederick and Harry Stafford, both of whom were at Ruhleben.
 
 
Frederick Stafford
 
The National Archives of London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 concerning an enquiry from Mrs. Ada Brundell about her brothers, Frederick and Harry Stafford, both of whom were at Ruhleben.
 
 

Sir Charles Villiers Stanford
 
Irishman Sir Charles Villiers Stanford was noted as an inmate at Ruhleben in his obituary in The Times on March 31st 1924 ("Sir C. V. Stanford", p.17, col. B):
"Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, whose death is announced on another page, was born on September 30, 1852, the only son of Robert Stanford, a Master in Chancery of Dublin, and an enthusiastic amateur musician and singer. The boy's musical talents showed themselves early and were fostered with the utmost care by the father and that circle of musicians in Dublin of whom Sir Robert Stewart was then the leader...
 
"...Perhaps the foreign performance which pleased him most was one in Germany during the war, when prisoners of war at Ruhleben triumphantly performed his famous "Songs of the Sea" in the presence of the officers of the camp:
If the Dons sight Devon
I'll quit the port of Heaven
And drum them up the Channel
As we drummed them long ago.
"This put heart into him, for in spite of, or rather because of, his close association with the great artists of the old Germany he was heart and soul with his own country in fighting the new Germany."
 
 

Stanley
 
Stanley was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

Gerald Francis Stanley
 
See MAX SCHLEICHER...
 
 

C. Stansfield
 
C. Stansfield, of Cardiff, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Samuel Lapsley Stanton
 
Many thanks to Gareth Jones for the information that he sent to me in June 2007 regarding his grandfather, Samuel Lapsley Stanton.
 
Samuel was born in 1894, and was an apprentice on board the S.S. Treglisson, working for the Haines Steam Navigation Company (see entry for Clarence B. Short for painting of the Treglisson). At the time of his capture by the Germans in Hamburg on 4 AUG 1914, his home address was noted on Marcus Bateman's "Index of British Fishermen and Merchant Seamen taken Prisoner of War 1914-1918" website as being 45 Fitzhammon Embankment in Cardiff, Wales. He was duly interned at Ruhleben. 
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Stanton was from Castle Cary, Cardiff. He was noted as a marine apprentice arrested in Bremen, before being sent on to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
After the war, Samuel joined P&O, the London Counties, progressing to master mariner (London Counties commodore). He was torpedoed twice in the second world war. He reluctantly retired circa 1960, despite being offered a Marine Superintendent's job in Hong Kong 1970, but at 78 his wife would not emigrate with him! Samuel eventually passed away in Cardiff in 1974.
 
 

Richard Stark
 
Richard Stark was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

R. B. Steadman
 
Steadman is noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14) as having played for the Varsities team against the Rest of Ruhleben, in the Ruhleben Cricket League.
 
Steadman is further noted in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.38) as being involved in one of the camp's more memorable cricket matches:
No match has created the same amount of interest in Ruhleben as that between Masterman's XI v. "The Next" XVI. Spice was added to this contest of the best 27 cricketers in the Camp, by the arranging of a "Sweepstake", by McPherson of 9, in which practically every man in the Lager took a sporting chance in this original idea. Each ticket held a combination of three players and the ticket bearing the names of the three highest scorers was the winner of the prize. This fell to the fortunate holder of the Masterman 91, Steadman 60, (not out) and Mounsey 26. In this match Dutton, for "The Rest" bowled brilliantly and took 4 for 25.
Steadman's average cricket score of 50.57 runs per inning for July is also noted, he having scored 354 runs in total for 9 innings over several matches, twice not out.
 
 

E. Steed
 
E. Steed was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Frederick W. Steege
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/61 regarding the release of British bank officials of the Anglo-South American Bank and the Standard Bank of South Africa, and includes details on their release from Ruhleben, including the case of Mr. F. W. Steege, manager of the Standard Bank's Hamburg branch. The documents include lists of other individuals interned (in docket numbers 64772 and 69240).
 
The archive holds further documents from 1916 at FO383/208 regarding attempts to arrange for Steege's release from Ruhleben in exchange for Mr Otto Roese, and subsequent confirmation of the repatriation of Mr Roese.
 
Steege was one of sixteen men released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Times of January 29th 1917 ("Changed Conditions in Germany", p.8, col. G).
 
 

H. Berry Steege
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds items relating to H. Berry Steege's internment, at reference RUH 51, the items having been donated by Steege in July 1977. These are a publication of 'The Ruhleben Bye-Election' from 1915; verses from 'The Mikado' performed at Ruhleben; a pen drawing of the Pondside Stores at Ruhleben; two postcards and sketch of Hamburg; two issues of 'In Ruhleben Camp' (August 1915, December 1915); 52 issues of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (March to May 1916, Aug 1916, Dec 1916); an issue of 'La Vie Francaise de Ruhleben' (July 14th 1916); and a typed transcript of an interview recorded with Peter Liddle in July 1977, the original audio recording being found on tapes 456 and 454.
 
The online index tells us that Steege was born in Hamburg and arrested there in 1914. He was interned at Ruhleben's Barrack 5. 
 
 
C. Steele
 
C. Steele was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 250 Walton Brick Road, Anfield, Liverpool.
 
 

J. Stein
 
In issue 2 of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915), J. Stein was noted as one of the "Brothers Stein" intending to produce the German play "Dr. Klaus" on August 1st.
 
In issue six of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) Stein is aso noted as having co-produced the play "Tantris der Narr", with fellow inmate Leigh Henry, whilst in the camp. He is further noted as having produced the play "Das Konzert".
 
Stein was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth in April 1917, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. Stein was interned in Barrack 13.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
He was the brother of Leopold Stein.
 
 
Leopold Stein
 
Leopold Stein was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth in April 1917, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. Stein was interned in Barrack 13.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
Leopold was the brother of J. Stein.
 
 

D. B. Steinberg
 
D. B. Steinberg was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

I. Steinbock
 
I. Steinbock placed an advert in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.50):
I. STEINBOCK, the Ruhleben tailor - Grandstand hall.
 
Egon Steiz
 
Egon Steiz was noted as having resided in Barrack 2 Box 24 on a postcard from 23 APR 1915, as held in a private collection by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria. On 6 NOV he was noted on another postcard in Barack 15, the Teahouse, and on a Christmas card later that year. He was further noted on two separate postcards on 18 JAN 1918 to West Laeville and Perth in Australia, each noting him as staying in the Teahouse (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 
 

George Stephens
 
George Stephens, of Grimsby, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
C. C. Stephenson
 
C. C. Stephenson is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Stephenson was a merchant seaman on board the S. S. Castro, and interned in Barrack 8.
 
 
Harry Stern
 
Harry Stern's signature was recorded on March 3rd 1916 by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. He was interned in Barrack 11 Box 25 and came from the north west of London.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
 

William Stern
 
The Times of January 20th 1915 (page 4, col. A) tells us that a postcard sent to the paper and signed by Ruhleben inmates John W. Lintner, A. J. Dolphin, R. L. Nunn, Wm. Stern, E. Williams and W. S. Cohn wished for a "happy Christmas and a brighter New Year".
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/27 on William Stern, specifically with regard to his possible release in exchange for an invalided German prisoner, as well as representations on his behalf from C. T. Needham, MP of Manchester. FO383/68 then contains extracts from Stern's letters written from the camp, as well as a postcard sent by him. FO383/69 holds notes on conditions at Ruhleben, including "further details from Mr. W. Stern of St Ives, Cornwall, about conditions and criticism of administration of camp". The folder also includes a list of individuals deemed pro-German with some personal details and remarks by William Stern and Richard Fosdick, both released from Ruhleben in 1915 (in docket no. 169394).
 
Amongst the inmates who gave lectures at Ruhleben, Francis Gribble, in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook", recorded the presence of
"...Mr. Stern, who dealt with Russia.."
Stern was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Wallfield, Whitefield. It is not yet known if this is the same gentleman. A further article in the Guardian from June 15th 1915 (p.9), entitled "Civilian Prisoners in Germany" is signed by Stern on behalf of the Society.

After his release, Stern gave an account of his internment in the Manchester Guardian article "Life in the Camp at Ruhleben" on September 11th 1915 (p.8).

 

Fred Sterndale

Fred Sterndale was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 48 North Street, Oldham.

 

Edgar Stertz
 
Edgar Stertz was shown in Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History Study of... The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914-1918" to have received a card at some point in the camp. The card, however, had PRESENT LOCATION UNCERTAIN stamped on the front, and was returned to England. The card was addressed to Stertz in Barrack 10.
 
 
 
William Stevens (1879 -1956)
 
William Stevens was the son of Samuel Stevens, Huntsman
to the Pardubitz (now Pardubice) Hunt, and was a stud groom working
in Silesia who was interned when the war broke out. His mother was Austrian and the Austro-Hungarian government lobbied for his release
which was finally achieved in August 1917, when he was repatriated to Austria.

Many thanks to John Pinfold for supplying this information in September 2008.

 

J. G. Stewart
 
J. G. Stewart, of Liverpool, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Robert Stewart
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Robert Stewart is noted as being from 35 De Vere Gardens, Ilford, Essex, and as having been born in Fleetwood in 1894. He was an accountant in Eberfeld, where he was arrested on 22 SEP 1914. After a brief period held in Eberfeld and Duisburg, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5. The entry suggests that Leak was a Captain, presumably of the football team for the barrack.
 
Robert Stewart is also listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Stewart is recorded as having been born on June 19th 1894 in Fleetwood, and is described as having been an accountant prior to his internment. His home address was again listed as 35 De Vere Gardens, Ilford, Essex. At the time the register was recorded, Snowman was noted as staying in loft A.
 
Stewart is noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14) as having played for the Rest of Ruhleben team against the Varsities, in the Ruhleben Cricket League.
 
Stewart was also named in an article in the Manchester Guardian of Auguist 19th 1915 (p.6) as having participated in a Lincolnshire versus Yorkshire cricket match at Ruhleben.
 
Stewart was further noted in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p. 29) as having been a member of a football team led by John Cameron, which defeated an opposing side led by Steve Bloomer on March 3rd 1916.
 
He was recorded in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.37) as being a medium paced bowler playing cricket for the Barrack 5 side.
 
Stewart was noted as playing on the Rest of the World side, led by Cameron, in a mock international between England and the Rest of the World on May 2nd 1915. Kick off took place at 4.30pm, and a document with the teams listed was recently discovered amongst some Foreign Office files by the National Archives, in November 2005.
 
Stewart was also noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing Brearley's XI side against Cameron's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to the Cameron team.
 
A photo of Stewart can be seen online at Steve Bloomer's Farewell Match, whilst a sketch, by fellow internee Harry Pimm, is reproduced below:

 
 
Edward Victor Stibbe (1890-1966)
 
Edward Stibbe was an inmate at Ruhleben, as noted by his grandson Dr. Matthew Stibbe. Matthew is currently putting a book together on his research into Ruhleben, which will be due out in 2007. 
 
Stibbe was a Leicester knitwear machinary manufacturer, who was based at Chemnitz, Saxony, at the outbreak of the war, he was arrested in Chemntiz (and is listed in National Archives, FO 369/714, as so in a list of 26 British subjects held in the town in November 1914),a dn was then moved to Ruhleben the same month, where he stayed until November 1918.
 
Many thanks to Matthew Stibbe who has been a great help with the site.
 
 

Robert Still
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Robert Still is noted as being from Shadwell in Lodnon, and as having been born in London on 9 JAN 1889. He was a jam maker and was arrested 29 AUG 1914 in Tangermunde. After a brief period held at Alten-Grabow, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
Still was noted in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p. 29) as having been a member of a football team led by John Cameron, which defeated an opposing side led by Steve Bloomer on March 3rd 1916.
 
Still was also noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the winning Cameron's XI side against Brearley's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to the Cameron team.
 
 

J. Stirling
 
J. M. Stirling was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
Stirling was later noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 
Ludwik Stckes
 
Ludwik Stckes was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 26 year old engineer who had been working in Berlin.
 
 

Stockwell
 
Stockwell was noted in the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.18) as having won first prize in a contest run by the Debating Society.
 
 

Albert Stockwell
 
Albert Stockwell was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 

Stokes
 
A gentleman called Stokes is listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The name was included in a list communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler). There are a couple of gents with that name known to have been interned in the camp, and it is not clear which one of these he may be, if at all.
 
 
Ch. Stokes
 
Ch. Stokes was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as c/o Messrs. Mather and Platt, Salford.
 
The name of prisoner 'C. H. Stokes' as an inmate at Ruhleben was also supplied to me by Elizabeth Beasley, daughter of prisoner Jack Griggs, in January 2006. The name appears in a book given to her father whilst in the Camp, and dated 20/3/1917.
 
 

Hugh Jefferson Stokes
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/25 concerning Hugh Jefferson Stokes, a British subject interned at Ruhleben. The documents comprise of representations from Stokes' father, Edward D. Stokes of Ealing, regarding his son's wife and infant children reported to be in great financial distress at Nijmegen, Netherlands.  Further documents on Stokes are held at FO383/26.
 
 

Robert Stoneham
 
Robert Stoneham worked for the Berlitz school of languages teaching English to non English speakers and was in Cologne at the outbreak of war. He was captured near Frankfurt while trying to flee to Switzerland and interned at the old race course camp in Ruhleben.
 
Robert was an active sportsman and musically talented (playing half a dozen instruments). From various family records, his grandson, Bernard Bridge, believes that he played amateur football in Barcelona in 1912 (working for Berlitz then as well) before moving to Cologne in 1913, as he is mentioned in team lists in Barcelona in the Spanish sports papers of the period. It is likely that he therefore was active in the camp's various sports activities. Robert was from Tufnell Park in London where he returned after the war.

Many thanks to Robert's grandson, Bernard Bridge, who supplied me with the above information in November 2005.
 
 
Stopani
 
In a list of prisoners from the Wolf transferred to Ruhleben in A. H. F. Clarke's "To Kiel on the German Raider Wolf and Beyond", Stopani is noted as a Ruhleben prisoner from Singapore, captured on the ship Hitachi Maru in early 1918. See entry for Alfred Henry Frank Clarke.
 
 

G. Storey
 
G. Storey is listed in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having made a triple expansion marine engine, with his efforts photographed as an example of camp craftsmanship.
 
 

Thomas B. Storey
 
Thomas B. Storey was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

Professor Lionel Strachan
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 regarding information from Mrs Edith Strachan about the safe receipt of parcels in Ruhleben, the information having been supplied by her inmate husband, Lionel Strachan. Starchan was a professor at Heidelberg University.
 
The archive holds further documents from 1916 at FO383/208 regarding confirmation of Professor Strachan's internment at Ruhleben Camp, following an enquiry from the University Council about the position of British lecturers and professors in Germany.
 
In issue seven of In Ruhleben Camp (Sep 1915, p.8), Strachan is noted as having given an entertaining lecture on "The Town Life of Shaespeare" for a Shakespeare Evening.
 
Strachan is further noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.22) as having given a reading at a recent Thackeray evening held by the Debating Society in the camp. He is also noted as having given a literary lecture entitled "English Sonneteers" (p.36).
 
 

Allan Gordon Strawbridge
 
Allan Gordon Strawbridge is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Strawbridge is recorded as having been born on October 29th 1890 in Adelaide, Australia, and is described as having been an artist and painter prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Adelaide, South Australia. At the time the register was recorded, Strawbridge was noted as staying in loft B, having transferred there from Barrack 1 on July 19th 1917.
 
Strawbridge is also recorded as having spent some time in the Bird Cage between January 28th 1918 and January 31st.
 
 

H. A. Strawbridge
 
The Times of February 5th 1919 also tells us that the Crown Princess of Sweden returned on February 4th to the Ruhleben exhibition, and purchased 40 paintings, with the painters selected including H. A. Strawbridge, a former inmate at the camp ("Court News", p.11, col. B).
 
 

W. Strevens
 
W. Strevens, of Walmgate, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

John George Stromier
 
John George Stromier was a watchmaker and jeweller, formerly of 95 Nithsdale Drive, Strathbungo, Glasgow, who died whilst interned in Ruhleben. In the Scotsman newspaper of November 6th 1915, Stromier's estate was listed at a value of 2452 ("Scottish and Other Wills", p.8). 
 
 
J. C. Struckmeyer
 
J. C. Struckmeyer was a member of a committe of 30 ex-Ruhleben prisoners who after the war contributed and collected funds to provide a headstone for fellow internee Cecil Duncan-Jones, who died shortly after his release from the camp and his return to England. (Many thanks to Cecil's great nephew Richard Duncan-Jones for providing this information in June 2007.)
 
 

Ernst Frederick Sturm
 
Ernst Frederick Sturm is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Sturm is recorded as having been born on September 19th 1861 in Reading, Berkshire, and is described as having been a colliery manager prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 15 Bond Street, Halford Square, London S.W. At the time the register was recorded, Sturm was noted as staying in box 27, having been there since his arrival from Russia on July 26th 1918. He transferred to Barrack 12 on August 28th 1918.
 
Sturm is also recorded as having spent some time in the Stadtvogtei between July 27th 1918 and August 22nd.
 
 

Sullivan
 
This was the son of Thomas Sullivan (below), who was stated as being a prisoner at Ruhleben in The Times of March 9th 1918 ("Prisoners from Ruhleben", p.6, col. B).
 
 
Thomas Sullivan


Tom Sullivan circa 1910

Thomas Sullivan was a champion sculler, who was head coach in Germany for the Olympic Games when the war broke out, and who was subsequently interned, along with his son, on February 18th 1915, the delay being due to his birth as New Zealander, one of the British colonies.
 
Sullivan was recorded as an inmate at Ruhleben by Francis Gribble, in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook".
"We could have put a creditable boat on the river at either of the universities - stroked, perhaps, by Mr. Kindersley, son of the President of the O.U.B.C., who had himself rowed for Cambridge, or else by Mr. Tom Sullivan, once a champion sculler."
Sullivan was an inmate who initially ran the camp's Sports Committee, before resigning the post in June 1915. The following article from In Ruhleben Camp, second issue (June 1915), explains what happened, with the editor's own comment on the situation following (p.11):
 "Mr. Sullivan informs us that he has resigned the Presidency of the Sports Committee. We understand that Mr. Sullivan requested the latter body for a grant of 20M towards the 50M which had to be raised on behalf of the team, the "Rest of the Camp", which pulled against Barrack 4 in a tug of war, the conditions of the pull being that each side should put up 50M - money to be spent in medals to go to the winners. This grant was refused and Mr. Sullivan saw no other course open to him than to resign. By the way, is it always necessary to have prizes whenever we indulge in sport? We used to be rather proud of our amateur spirit in England."
An apology was made to Sullivan in the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp (Sep 1915 p.38) for an article published in the previous issue entitled "Stolen midnight interviews No. 2 Mr O'Sullivan of Ballysport" which "contained expressions that might be misunderstood in a sense depricatory" to him!
 
It is further noted, on page 30, that Sullivan's team lost the challenge to Barrack 4.
 
In the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.3). Sullivan was also noted as having organised boxing, fencing and wrestling events for the August bank holiday.
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding enquiries about the possibilty of Sullivan's release from Ruhleben Camp in exchange for a German prisoner.
 
Sullivan was one of one hundred and twenty prisoners released from Ruhleben in March 1918, who made their way to Rotterdam to proceed to England, as reported in The Times of March 9th 1918 ("Prisoners from Ruhleben", p.6, col. B).
 
A biographical entry for Sullivan appears on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Sullivan_(rower))
 
 
T. G. J. Sullivan
 
T. G. J. Sullivan was noted as being in Barrack 10 Box 11 in a letter to London dated 12 MAR 1916, now held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

George Summons
 
George Summons is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Summons is recorded as having been born on September 28th 1866 in Ditchingham, Norfolk, and is described as having been a seamanon the "Edwin Hunter" prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Holby Hill, Ditchingham. At the time the register was recorded, Summons was noted as staying in loft B, having transferred from Barrack 23 on September 15th 1916.
 
Between July 14th and November 24th 1917, Summons spent time in the sanatorium, and between December 16th and December 24th, he also spent some time in the camp's Schonungsbaracke. He returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
 
James McDonald Sumner
 
James McD. Sumner was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 27 Gonville Road, Bootle.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Sumner was from 27 Gonville Road, Bootle Sands, and was born 28 MAY 1891 in Liverpool. He was an engineer, and was arrested in Hamburg on 16 OCT 1914. After a brief imprisonment in Hamburg, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
The birth index at FreeBMD confirms his middle name as McDonald (GROEW 1891 Q2, West Derby Vol.8b p.407).
 
 
W. M. Sumner
 
W. M. Sumner was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 26 Beaconsfield Road, Seaforth.
 
 
J. Surst
 
J. Surst is listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe. Beside his typed name is written Queen's Arms Hotel, Aintree, Liverpool (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 

S. Sussman
 
S. Sussman placed an advert in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.48), offering his services as a Russian tailor in Grand Stand no.1, with his accomodation listed as Barrack 11, Box 26.
 
 

Albert Sutherland
 
Albert Sutherland is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Sutherland is recorded as having been born on May 20th 1893 in Grimsby, and is described as having been a fisherman on the "Manx Queen" prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 146 Barcroft Street, Grimsby. At the time the register was recorded, Sutherland was noted as staying in loft A.
 
 

John Sutherland
 
John Sutherland is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Sutherland is recorded as having been born on March 18th 1884 in North Shields, and is described as having been a fisherman on the "St. George" prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 95 Bedford Street, North Shields. At the time the register was recorded, Sutherland was noted as staying in box 11, having been there since his arrival from Senne on October 29th 1915.
 
 

William Eric Swale
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds many items donated in 1977 and 1978 by former inmate William Eric Swale, held under reference RUH 52. These are four Christmas cards from 1914 to 1918; thirty postcards from 1914 to 1918; four postcards with sketches used to illustrate a lecture; three watercolour cartoons; fifty photographs from 1915 to 1918; papers from the American Consular Service  dated August 13th 1914; a manuscript letter to the Home Office confirming considerate and courteous treatment of British residents in Mannheim, dated November 1st 1914; a manuscript letter, with typescript translation, from a German friend regarding the causes of the First World War, dated September 27th 1914; two manuscript notebooks 'Ruhleben Memories' and 'Stable Jottings' (1914 to 1915); a letter to his father dated May 2nd 1915; a supplement to a Ruhleben paper dated June 1915; printed theatre and concert programmes, revue extracts, poems and song-sheets, from 1915 to 1917; a tercentenary Shakespeare Festival song-sheet (April 23rd to 30th 1916); manuscript verses of the Ruhleben song and five other songs; an issue of 'The Ruhleben Daily News', dated January 25th 1916; a typescript of an English text of a Russian poem, dated January 8th 1916; an issue of the magazine 'Prisoners' Pie' from 1916; a fragment of the summer issue of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (Aug 1916); Press cuttings from 'The Daily Telegraph' (September 20th 1916) and 'Selfridges News' (1916); a manuscript letter, with typescript translation, from a German uncle, dated June 21st 1916; a German press cutting relating to Ruhleben; a Ruhleben Camp School membership card for the 1916 winter term; a prospectus of work for the 1917 autumn term at Ruhleben Camp School; a German certificate dated November 22nd 1918; three books bound by W. E. Swale at Ruhleben Camp School; a booklet of 'Special War Cartoons' published by 'The Daily Graphic'; a typescript projected index for Ruhleben magazines; a typescript of recollections, 'A Barbed Wire Society', by J. D. Ketchum; typescript of recollections, 'We Band of Brothers' (May 1962); an autographed Ruhleben reunion dinner menu, dated November 3rd 1967; a letter to Edmonds relating to reunion dinners, dated October 5th 1970; papers relating to Ruhleben reunion dinners (1973-1974); a typescript list of future professions entered into by a selection of Ruhleben prisoners, dated December 13th 1974; a typescript autobiography, 'Slide Rule in Hand: An Engineer Looks Back - 1890-1974' (1974); a typescript list of books and articles dealing with Ruhleben; a manuscript and typescript notes from letters to his mother; a typed transcript of an interview recorded with Peter Liddle from April 1977, with the ortigina audio recordings found on tapes 439 and 462; a typescript essay 'Novel Evidence on the Tay Bridge Disaster' (August 1977); a letter dated September 20th 1977;and a typescript of 'Memories of Ruhleben Camp' compiled by W. E. Swale and Peter Liddle in November 1977.
 
The online index also tells us that Swale was born in 1890 in London and educated at the City of London School. He studied engineering at Aachen, from 1911 to 1913, and was working for an electrical manufacturer at Mannheim at the outbreak of the war. In Ruhleben, Swale was interned in Barrack 11. He died in 1980.
 
 

William Harper Swann
 
William Harper Swann is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Swann is recorded as having been born on December 16th 1879 in Manchester, and is described as having been a correspondent prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Sterkrade, Bahnhofstr. 4. At the time the register was recorded, Swann was noted as staying in box 20.
 
Swann is also recorded as having spent some time in the Lazarett between April 5th 1918 and April 20th, and then between June 14th and July 15th. He is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between July 17th 1918 and July 25th.
 
 

H. H. Swift
 
H. H. Swift was listed in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.45) as being a member of the Ruhleben Tennis Association.
 
 

John Swift
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that John Swift was resident at Aintree, Liverpool, was a trainer arrested in Berlin on 6 NOV 1914, and after a brief spell in Berlin's Stadtvogtei prison was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
Swift was appointed in March 1915 by Powell, the camp captain at Ruhleben, to chair the Canteen Department, as reported in the Scotsman on 29/3/1915 (p.8) and the Times on 29/3/1915 ("More and Better Food at Ruhleben" p.4 col A). The department's remit was to control and administer the camp canteens, and to handle all questions connected with the purchase and sale of goods in the camp.
 
A document with the teams listed for a mock international between England, led by Bloomer, and the Rest of the World, led by Cameron, on May 2nd 1915, was recently discovered amongst some Foreign Office files by the National Archives, in November 2005. It further lists J. Swift as one of the honorary vice-presidents of the Ruhleben Football Association, the other being L. G. Beaumont.
 
In an article in the Scotsman newspaper of October 27th 1915, Swift was listed as captain of Barrack 2 ("Ruhleben Camp - Success of Civil Administration", p.9).
 
 
 

H. Sydenham
 
H. Sydenham was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Sylvester
 
Mr. Sylvester was noted as a prisoner in Ruhleben in an article in the Scotsman newspaper of March 11th 1916 ("Released from Ruhleben", p.7):
Locked up in another place were Mr. Sylvester, Mr. S. Pearson, and the brothers Hickley, all of Nottingham. After being taken to Berlin, they were sent to Ruhleben, where they found the camp very rough for a time.
 
 

A. S. Szineasy
 
A. S. Szineasy was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Horizontal Divider 12

T
 
 
W. Tainsh
 
W. Tainsh was a member of the Ruhleben Prisoners' Release Committee, and is noted as an ex-Ruhleben POW in its report in february 1917 entitled "The Ruhleben Prisoners: The Case for their Release". (Many thanks to Jim MacKay for supplying a copy of this document in December 2007.)
 
 
John Talbot
 
John Talbot is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Talbot is recorded as having been born on May 27th 1886 in Denham, Buckinghamshire, and is described as having been a stud groom prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 9 The Crescent, Slough, Buckinghamshire. At the time the register was recorded, Talbot was noted as staying in box 20.
 
Talbot is also recorded as having spent some time in the Lazarett between October 14th 1918 and November 2nd.
 
 

William J. P. Tanton
 
William J. P. Tanton was one of nine men over the age of 55 released from Ruhleben at the beginning of May 1916, as noted in the Times of May 9th 1916 ("British Prisoners from Germany", p.5, col.F).
 
 
Bernard E. Tapp
 
Bernard E. Tapp was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
Tapp was named a member of the new camp entertainments committee (after a strike in the camp) in IRC issue 7, p.8 (Sep 1915).
 
 

F. Tarrant
 
F. Tarrant was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

E. Taylor
 
At the end of 1918, E. Taylor signed the autograph book of W. F. Pinn of Barrack 11, box 7, with the following muse (many thanks to Paul Bayliss):
Multitudes of people, are failures, or plod along in unhappiness because they have a wrong mental attitude towards life. They never face the sun and so cause the shadows to fall behind them. Instead they turn their backs to the light, and then the shadows fall in their paths. They live in darkness, when if they would simply turn face about their shadows would fall behind them; they would live in the light and see the beauty and joy and gladness instead of the blackness and gloom which envelopes their lives. Walk on the heights, the hills and mountain peaks of life, and get the grand views and breathe the invigorating air of omnipotence!
 
With the compliments of the season, and Best wishes for your future - le bon temps viendra.
 
E. Taylor 25-12-18
 
 

H. Taylor
 
H. Taylor is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Taylor was a merchant seaman on board the S. S. Hull, and interned in Barrack 8.
 
 
Henry Taylor
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Henry Taylor was resident at 22 Petrihofstrasse, Stettin, was born in Leith on 20 NOV 1877, was an office manager arrested in Charlottenburg on 6 NOV 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
 
H. Russell Taylor
 
H. Russell Taylor was an inmate at Ruhleben, as noted on a postcard that he posted to Amsterdam, Holland, on August 24th 1915, which later turned up for sale on E-Bay in June 2005. The postcard tells us that Taylor was interned in Barrack 7, box 22.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Taylor was noted as being from Kingscourt, Lincard, Cheshire and as having been born in Liverpool in 1888. He was arrested in Leipzig on 5 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Alten-Grabow, Leipzig, Lobejun, Halle and Magdeburg, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 

James C. Taylor
 
James C. Taylor was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
Taylor, of Brightlingsea, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

J. E. Taylor
 
J. E. Taylor was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
Taylor, of Goole, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
Norman Taylor
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Ruhleben POW Norman Taylor was from Horn near Bremen, Brahmkamp, and was born in Hackney in 1892. He was a manager, and was arrested in Bremen on November 6th 1914 and  sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
 

George Teger
 
George Teger placed an advert in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.49):
George Teger - first class pedicure professional coiffeur. Bar 6, Box 7
Hrs 8-11.30 1.30 - 4
Suns & Thurs 8 - 11.30.
He again advertised his services in the seventh issue, though by now was based in the Grand-Stand (Sep 1915, p. 46).
 

C. W. S. Temple
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University contains some items relating to former inmate C. W. S. Temple, under reference RUH 53. The items were deposited in the collection in July 1977 by Temple himself. They are about 140 photographs from 1916 to 1917; a Ruhleben Exhibition catalogue from 1919; and a typed transcript of an interview recorded with Peter Liddle in September 1977, with the original audio recording held on tape 486.
 
The online index tells us that Temple was born in 1897 at Stroud Green, London, and was working in Cologne at the outbreak of the war. He stayed in Barrack 5 through his internment.
 
 

James Terry
 
The Scotsman newspaper reported on March 9th 1916 that James Terry had been released from Ruhleben a couple of days earlier ("Released from Ruhleben", p.5).
 
 

Captain T. H. Terry
 
T. H. Terry was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
Captain T. H. Terry, of Stockton-on-Tees, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
From an article in the Scotsman dated November 12th 1915, it is known that Captain Terry was able to send a letter to Captain E. Allen, of the S.S. Assiout, who was interned at a camp in Magnesia, Turkey ("Messages From Interned Merchant Seafarers", p.11).
 
 

James Samuel Thirkettle
 
James Samuel Thirkettle is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Thirkettle is recorded as having been born on May 28th 1868 in Moulton, and is described as having been a coachman prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Moulton, Acle, Norwich. At the time the register was recorded, Thirkettle was noted as staying in loft A. He returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
Between December 18th and January 2nd, Thirkettle spent some time in the camp's Schonungsbaracke.
 
 

Thomas

A gent called Thomas is listed as being at Ruhleben in a typed Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The name was included in a list communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler). Beside the entry in red handwriting is the following extra information added subsequently: "Wife - Mrs S. T. Thomas, Briarholme, Pill, nr. Bristol"
 

Arthur J. Thomas

The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 regarding advice for a Mr. H. E. Thomas to continue sending regular parcels to Ruhleben prisoner Arthur J. Thomas, pending the release of prisoners.

 

Ernest Thomas
 
Ernest was a second engineer on board the Auk, born 1874 and from 162 Adelaide Road, Brockley, Kent. His great niece Debbie Warburton alerted me to his existence in January 2008, for which I am grateful, whilst a cousin, Mary Newbery, has subsequently provided the following biography, for which I am equally grateful.
Ernest obtained a 2nd class Certificate of Competency No 33675 from North Shields on 3rd September 1897 and First Class, same number, on 20th May 1899 also from North Shields. In 1897 he was described as being of dark complexion,with brown hair and blue eyes. He was 5 foot 6.25 inches tall. Prior to taking his examination he had been employed at Palmer's Hill Engineering works from 12.5.1891-12.5.1896, and thereafter as 3rd Engineer on S/S JM Smith. In 1899 he is described as of fair complexion and has grown 0.25 inches! He has continued on the same vessel as Second Engineer. There is a circa 1916 entry for Ernest THOMAS in National Archives file MT9/1094
 
THOMAS Ernest, 162 Adelaide Road Brockley SE, Age 38, Engineer, Barrack 11 (Ruhleben) 

Ernest was second officer on the "AUK" 77,194 ,belonging to the General Steam Navigation Company, of 15, Trinity Square W1,, when it was detained in the port of Hamburg at the start of WW1. This was one of 79 vessels, including many fishing boats, so detained. He was interned in the Ruhleben camp for the duration of the war. Ruhleben was a concentration camp apparently set up on the site of a racecourse in Spandau, near Berlin Among the many papers held at the PRO, Kew, there are those that relate to the preferential treatment in the matter of parcels accorded to the officers of the Merchantile Marine, including those from Fishing vessels. Despite the secretaary to the Admiralty disagreeing this policy was endorsed by HMG.

Concerns were also expressed about the inadequate allowances made to dependants. The Masters, Officers and Engineers at Ruhelen raised these concerns in Aug. 1914.  In 1917 it was decided to pay dependants the same as they would have received had their lives been lost due to enemy action. Some individual cases of hardship were mentioned but Ernest's name does not appaer on these lists. Some employers did not make a contribution or send parcels. However, the General Steam Navigation Company continued to pay wages and in a letter of August 1918 lists the payments made to those who had by then been returned to Britain. Ernest did not figure on this list. A list dated April 1918 shows that the captain W. Hughes, carpenter J. Henrichson and seaman W. Hurley had already been released.

There were many more files and I was not able to find when Ernest finally returned home.
 
I know nothing else about him except that at the time of his death he was living in Canute Road, Stretford. Death in hospital registered by sister-in-law Anna.
 
So there are many missing years in my knowledge of Ernest, who had introduced my grandparents, Edward Craddock, a ship's captain, who was a second or third officer at the time and Eleanor Maud Allan.
The following update from mary was supplied in October 2008:
Ernest survived until June 1947 when he died in hospital in Eccles, although he had been living in Canute Road, Stretford, close to his brother Charles family. I also know he married Eleanor Louise Moller in Feb. 1910 in Sunderland. Unfortunately the detail of that marriage and his life after 1918 still remains a blank.
 
As E. Thomas, Ernest was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. He was interned in Barrack XI.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this last piece of information in December 2007.
 
 

P. J. E. Thomas
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/71 regarding a Mr. P. J. E. Thomas, described as a 'coloured' British subject from Sierra Leone, who was interned at Ruhleben. The documents deal with a request for financial assistance, a claim by Thomas that he is related to a West African chief, and arrangements for remittance.
 
 
Rowland John Thomas
 
Many thanks to Denise Bayley, the great niece of Rowland John Thomas, for confirming his internment within Ruhleben in April 2007.

Rowland was born on 19th February 1883 in Holyhead and died 4 February 1952 at Ty Croes, Anglesey. Denise holds a copy of a visa and passport he used after the war, which shows that he went back to his sailing career.  He gained a Shipping Federations Registration Certificate in 1912 which shows he was a 2nd Engineer and lived at Hen Shop, Caergiliog, Anglesey. Whilst Denise knows little about his time within the camp, she does know that he was taken from the British Steamship "Frankdale".
 
Denise also holds a Certificate of Internment for Rowland, which states that he was a PoW from 4 August 1914 to November 1918, and that his name was inscribed in "the Roll of Honour of the Mercantile Marine".
 
 

Samuel Thomas
 
Samuel Thomas was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. Samuel was described as a 41 year old overseer who had been working in Elbing.
 
 
S. J. Thomas
 
S. J. Thomas was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

Thomas Thomas
 
Thomas Thomas was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as of 216 Primrose Road, Bootle, Liverpool.
 
Thomas was released from Ruhleben and returned to England at the beginning of 1916, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper of January 10th 1916 (p.10). Prior to the war, Thomas was employed by the Southern Cotton Oil Co, Traffrord Park, Manchester. In the article, Thomas noted his experiences at the camp, primarily to do with the famous footballers that he knew at the camp and the new YMCA hut built for the prisoners.
 
Thomas release was also listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D), where he was described as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916. He travelled home to England by merchant ship from Flushing.
 
 
W. Thomas
 
W. Thomas' signature was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. Thomas was from Crewe and was interned in Barrack XI. 
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
 

Thompson
 
Thompson was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the winning B side in a second division match between the A team and the B team, on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 

A. Thompson
 
A. Thompson was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

J. Rupert Thompson
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding the experiences of J. Rupert Thompson while interned with other Australian subjects in Ruhleben.
 
 

Reginald Thompson
 
Reginald Thompson is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Thompson is recorded as having been born on April 1st 1868 in Chadderton, and is described as having been a pipe fitter prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 19 Oakfield Grove, Gorton, Manchester. At the time the register was recorded, Thompson was noted as staying in loft B. He returned to England on March 7th 1918.
 
Thompson was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". 
 
 

William Thompson
 
William Thompson was one of nine men over the age of 55 released from Ruhleben at the beginning of May 1916, as noted in the Times of May 9th 1916 ("British Prisoners from Germany", p.5, col.F).
 
 

Thomson
 
The Times of January 3rd 1916 records that a Mrs Thomson, and her three children, arrived in Tilbury, having gone home from Belgium after the arrest of her husband, who was sent to Ruhleben.
 
 

Captain Thomson
 
Captain Thomson was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.16) as having given a lecture on Nautical Astronomy.
 
 
Edward Thomson
 
Edward Thomson was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 21 year old businessman previously at work in Berlin.
 
It seems likely he was the Tomson listed elsewhere in a document in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The name was included in a list communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 
Ernest Thomson
 
Ernest Thomson is noted in a document in FO 369/710 as a 21 year old English office junior sent first to Berlin's Stadtvogtei on 24 AUG 1914 and then to Ruhleben on 9 SEP 1914. He had been residing at 9 Schofenstrasse in Berlin. The information was originally compiled by the American Embassy in Berlin.
 
 

Peter Thomson
 
Peter Thomson is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Thomson is recorded as having been born on August 20th 1862 in Tullibody, Scotland, and is described as having been a seaman on the "Corsica" prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 6 West Claremont Street, Edinburgh. At the time the register was recorded, Thomson was noted as staying in box 15, having transferred there from Barrack 10 on July 7th 1915.
 
The National Library of Scotland holds a complete collection of the magazines "In Ruhleben Camp" and "The Ruhleben Camp Magazine", which are held in two bound volumes. Both volumes were posted in 1917 to Miss J. M. Thomson, 6 West Claremont Street, Edinburgh, by Peter Thomson, again noted as an inmate in Barrack 5, box 15.
 
This P. Thomson may in fact be the Peter Thomson who was noted in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p.15) as having replaced Shaw as the chair of the M.E.A. Circle.
 
 

G. H. Thornton
 
G. H. Thornton was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 23 Frederick Terrace, Slack Road, Blackley.
 
G. Thornton was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 
D. Thorpe
 
D. Thorpe was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 13 Grange Street, Rusholme.
 
 

J. H. Thorpe

irc3jhthorpe.jpg

J. H. Thorpe was appointed in March 1915 by Powell, the camp captain, to chair the Recreation Department, as recorded in the Scotsman on 29/3/1915 (p.8) and the Times on 29/3/1915 ("More and Better Food at Ruhleben" p.4 col A). The department's remit was to organise sports, concerts, debates, theatricals, etc. He is also named as Chairman of the new camp entertainments committee (after a strike in the camp) in IRC issue 7, p.8 (Sep 1915).
 
Thorpe was sketched for the third issue of In Ruhleben Camp (July 1915, p.19) as he appeared in the role of Mrs Staunton in the camp's production of Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Speckled Band".
 
In an article in the Scotsman newspaper of October 27th 1915, Thorpe was listed as captain of Barrack 11 ("Ruhleben Camp - Success of Civil Administration", p.9).
 
In the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.32), Thorpe is listed as having appeared in the play "The Younger Generation".
 
 
James Thorpe
 
James Thorpe was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 22 year old 'angestellter' (staff) who had been working in Berlin.
 
James Thorpe is also listed in another file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler). It is unclear if this is the same person as J. H. Thorpe. James was noted as having a brother who was also interned, though his first name was not given. It sees likely from the Russenlager Ruhleben document though that his broher was John Thorpe (see below).
 
 
John Thorpe
 
John Thorpe was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 29 year old manager who had been working in Berlin. As noted above, it seems likely that he was James Thorpe's older brother.
 
 

Roger Thynne
 
Roger Thynne's contribution to life in the camp is recorded in the Musical Notes section of the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917):

"Mr. Roger Thynne is a man of that type, only too rare in Ruhleben, which seeks to hide its light under a bushel, and his first appearance at such a comparatively advanced period of Ruhleben musical history was an event calculated to awake no little interest. Mr. Thynne may be congratulated on the success he achieved. After a somewhat uncertain start, which may be ascribed largely to a natural nervousness, Mr. Thynne played with delightlful ease and delicacy, his renderings, especially those of old and modern French music, bearing the stamp of a refined and sensitive individuality, if at the same time considerably marred by the extraordinary tempi very often adopted."

Thynne's obituary was carried in The Times of January 27th 1938, which states that he was interned whilst in Munich, and that during his four years in Ruhleben he compiled his book "The Churches of Rome" ("Mr. Roger Thynne", p.14, col. B).

 

Professor William H. E. Tilly
 
The National Archives in London hold doucments from 1916 at FO383/190, concerning Professor William H. E. Tilly, a British civilian prisoner released from Ruhleben Camp. The documents concern the Home Office's opinion that he should be encouraged to come to Britain where his activities and suspected pro-German sympathies could be kept under observation by the British authorities.
 
 

H. Julius W. Tillyard
 
H. Julius W. Tillyard was an Edinburgh University lecturer who was interned in Ruhleben after the outbreak of war. The Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.8) recorded the text of the following postcard sent to Edinburgh University:
"Best greetings to the old 'Varsity from the following students and ex-students at present resident at Ruhleben - James L. Mounsey; H. J. W. Tillyard, lecturer in Greek; W. J. Crosland Briggs, M.A., 1914; Harold Luck, M.A., 1913; M. F. Liddle, M.A., 1909; J. Halliday, M.A., 1914; James Peebles Conn, Bucher scholar in music, 1902; J. M. Dickson, M.A., BSc., Agric.; R. Herdman Pender, M.A., teacher in George Heriot's School; E. G. Burgoyne, J. Fleming, 1895-97; Robert McNeil, 1905-6; Eric G. Riddell, 1908-9, former students."
In the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915), Tillyard had a poem published, entitled "Lonely Lane (A Hint for the Ruhleben Camp Authorities) (p.6).
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds items relating to Tillyard's internment at RUH 54, the items having been deposited by his daughter Constance Hibbs in 1978 and by W. E. Swale. The items are a postcard written in German, with translation by Dr. H. G. Muller, dated November 16th 1914; a postmarked envelope dated December 17th 1914); two letters, written in German with translation by Dr. H. G. Muller, dated April 26th 1915, and April 28th 1915); a postcard written in German to his wife, with photocopy and translation by Dr. H. G. Muller, dated April 5th 1915; five letters to his wife, four of which are written in German, with translations by Dr. H. G. Muller, and one in English (March 5th to April 20th 1915; a letter from M. F. Liddell dated September 9th 1916; a letter to Tillyard from a fellow prisoner dated October 28th 1916; two letters; a typescript poem and prose written in German, with a translation by Dr. H. G. Muller; a 1916 Christmas card; an unpublished book of poetry 'Winter Sport and other verses' (December 1956); an unpublished book of poetry 'Verses for Children and Others' (December 1964); and a photocopied typescript recollections of Ruhleben from an unpublished autobiography.
 
In August 2008 I received the following contribution from David Gill, for which I am grateful:
I am completing a history of the British School at Athens (1886-1919). Henry J.W. Tillyard, a lecturer in Greek at Edinburgh, was interned at Ruhleben; his wife was German (Wilhelmina Kaufmann).
 

Tivey
 
Tivey is noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.36) as having given a literature lecture on "Galesworthy".
 
 

Harold Tivey
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Harold Tivey was resident at The Avenue, Alsagen, Cheshire, was born in Birmingham on 29 APR 1887, was a school-master arrested in Berlin on 6 NOV 1914, and was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
Tivey was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

J. Todd
 
J. Todd contributed a drawing of a Ruhleben horse-box to the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917). The caption reads:
"This drawing does not reprsent typical Ruhleben quarters, but shows what can be done to disguise a horse-box. Drawn by J. Todd." 
A player called Todd was also listed in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.45) as being a member of the Ruhleben Tennis Association.
 
 

Thomas Dixon Todd
 
Thomas Dixon Todd is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Todd is recorded as having been born on January 25th 1891 in Greenwood, Kansas, USA, and is described as having been a teacher prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 6Scotland Gate, Choppington, Northumberland. At the time the register was recorded, Todd was noted as staying in box 23.
 
 
Todt
 
Todt was noted as having resided in Barrack 4 Box 9 on a postcard dated 28 AUG 1915, as held in a private collection by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria. (Many thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 
L. H. Tones
 
A letter of apology was written by L. H. Tones and published in the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp (Sep 1915. p.38). In this he apologised to fellow inmate Thomas Sullivan for having penned an article entitled "Stolen midnight interviews No. 2 Mr. O' Sullivan of Ballysport" which the Education Committee believed contained expressions that might have been considered derogatory against him.
 
 
Tonkin
 
Tonkin was noted as having resided in Barrack 3 Loft A on a postcard dated 16 DEC 1915, as held in a private collection by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria. (Many thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

Tooby
 
Two sons of Charles Tooby were also interned in Ruhleben, with their father (see below), as noted in the Scotsman newspaper of October 9th 1916 ("An Irishwoman's Return from Germany", p.3). 
 
One of the sons, first name unknown, was released with his father in May 1916.
 
 

Charles Tooby
 
An article entitled "An English Artist in Germany" from the Times of January 30th 1915 (page 11, col. E) tells us that Ruhleben inmate Charles Tooby, whose "art is appreciated highly among connoisseurs in Denmark" was "one of the greatest animal painters in Europe".
"For more than 20 years he has lived in Munich, where he and his Irish wife are well known, and where his two sons have been educated as artists, one, of them as painter, the other as sculptor. As a proof of his prestige it may be stated that , in spite of the fact hat he is a foreigner, he has several times been selected as a member of the jury of the Art Exhibition in Munich, the most noteworthy exhibition in Germany. Now his position is changed. He is an Englishman and - an enemy. No Germans buy his paintings, and he and his family are in difficulties. He is an Englishman and a great artist, though in England he is not yet much known. He is now in Muncih, and is anxious to return to England."
 
Tooby is also listed in the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.43) as having exhibted in the camp's third art exhibition.
 
Tooby was one of fifteen men released from Ruhleben who arrived in neutral Holland on June 7th 1916, as noted in the Times of June 8th 1916 ("War Weariness in Germany", p.7, col.C). One of his sons was also released.
 
Tooby's wife, an Irish woman, was noted in the Scotsman newspaper of October 9th 1916 as on her way to England from Munich.
AN IRISHWOMAN'S RETURN FROM GERMANY
Amsterdam, Friday
 
Mrs Tooby, with her son and daughter, arrived here to-night from Munich on the way to England. Mrs Tooby, who is an Irishwoman, lived in Germany for twenty-five years. Her husband, an artist, was interned at Ruhleben in November 1915, but released six weeks later. He was again interned last May, and released a month later to go to England. One son is still at Ruhleben. She said that life continued as usual in Munich, and people with plenty of money could get plenty of food. German soldiers were longing for peace, though the nation as a whole was confident of the result of the war.
The Times also covered her return on October 7th 1916 ("Irishwoman's Return from Munich", p.7, col. E).
 
Tooby was also recorded at the Ruhleben Exhibition on the day that the Crown Princess of Sweden visited. The article appeared on January 30th 1919 in the Times ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.11, col. F). The Times of February 5th 1919 also tells us that the princess returned on February 4th to the exhibition, and purchased 40 paintings, with the painters selected including Tooby ("Court News", p.11, col. B).
 
 

G. Tooby
 
G. Tooby was the second of two sons of Charles Tooby, both of whom were also interned in Ruhleben with their father (see below), as noted in the Scotsman newspaper of October 9th 1916 ("An Irishwoman's Return from Germany", p.3). 

G. Tooby is noted in a Scotsman newspaper article of April 12th 1916 as having contributed pencil sketches to the "Prisoners' Pie" annual, printed in Ruhleben ("Prisoners Pie - A Souvenir of Ruhleben Camp", p.5).

Tooby was thanked for his illustrations for the Ruhleben Camp Magazine by its editor, C. G. Pemberton, in the fifth issue (Christmas 1916, p.62).
 
G. Tooby was noted as having been the subject of a bust that had been purchased after the war by the Crown Princess of Sweden, at her second visit to the Ruhleben Exhibition, as recorded in The Times of February 5th 1919 ("Court News", p.11, col. B).
 
 

Arthur Augustus Tooth
 
Arthur Augustus Tooth was noted as a former prisoner at Ruhleben in an obitary carried for him in the Times on December 13th 1922 ("A Ruhleben Prisoner", p. 9, col. C):
A RUHLEBEN PRISONER
 
Members of the fine art trade in London and New York will be grieved to hear of the death on Monday of Mr. Arthur Augustus Tooth, eldest son of Mr. Arthur Tooth, the well-known picture dealer of New Bond-street and Fifth-avenue, New York. Mr. Arthur Tooth, junior, was in Germany at the outbreak of the war and was interned at Ruhleben until the Armistice. On returning to London he, with his younger brother, joined his father as partner in the business in New Bond-street. Mr. Tooth, who was 28 years of age, had been ill for only about a fortnight, had booked his passage to New York to join his brother this month.
 
 

Torren
 
Torren was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

J. Toskynski
 
J. Toskynski, of London, was one of fifteen men released from Ruhleben who arrived in neutral Holland on June 7th 1916, as noted in the Times of June 8th 1916 ("War Weariness in Germany", p.7, col.C).
 
 

Richard L. Townhill
 
Richard L. Townhill is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Townhill is recorded as having been born on April 22nd 1896 in Lincoln, and is described as having been a clerk prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 27 North Parade, Lincoln. At the time the register was recorded, Townhill was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 12 on November 13th 1915.
 
Townhill is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between July 8th 1918 and July 10th.
 
 

L. Tozer
 
L. Tozer, of Maidenhead, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

William George Trace
 
William George Trace is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Trace is recorded as having been born on February 20th 1889 in Towcester, Northants, and is described as having been a secretary prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Newnham, Daventry, Northants. At the time the register was recorded, Trace was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 11 on June 24th 1915.
 
 
Charles Trappsch
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Charles Trappsch was noted as being from 21 River Street, E.C. London, and as having been born in Tottenham in 1884. He worked as an electrician and was arrested in Wittenberge on 6 NOV 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7. 
 
 
H. E. Travers
 
H. E. Travers was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 5 Atherley Grove, New Moston, Manchester.
 
 

Edward Travis
 
Edward Travis is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Travis is recorded as having been born on March 2nd 1871 in Oldham, and is described as having been a spinning master prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 75 Dickson Road, Blackpool. At the time the register was recorded, Travis was noted as staying in box 23, having been there since his arrival from Tuchel on April 24th 1918.
 
Travis is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between July 16th 1918 and July 17th.
 
 

Bryceson Treharne
 
Bryceson Treharne was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
Treharne was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp as having been voted onto the committee of the newly formed Ruhleben Music Society, at a meeting on Thursday June 15th, attended by some 36 musicians in the camp (p.11 & p.41). 
 
 

Treseder
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that George W. Treseder was resident at The Nurseries, Cardiff, was born in Cardiff on 27 MAY 1893, was a nursery man arrested in Frankfurt and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
Treseder was also noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the winning Cameron's XI side against Brearley's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to the Cameron team.
 
 
A. Trevor
 
A. Trevor is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Trevor was a merchant seaman on board the S. S. Hull, and interned in Barrack 8.
 
 
Chris Trietschel
 
Chris Trietschel was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 5 Grosvenor Terrace, Prince's Park, Liverpool.
 
 
D. Trummel
 
D. Trummel was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 20 Weymouth Street, C-on-M.
 
 
G. Trummel
 
G. Trummel was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 9 Dennison Road, Vic. Park, M/c.
 
 
Charles Tuck
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Charles Tuck was from Station Road, Retford, and born in Lincoln on 15 OCT 1891. He was a clerk, arrested in Hanover on 3 AUG 1914, and after a brief imprisonment in both Hanover and Bendheim, was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 
David Mackay Tulloch
 
David Mackay Tulloch was Chief Engineer of the S. S. Rubislaw which was owned by John Reid and Co. He was arrested in Hamburg and interned when the war broke out. Many thanks to Norman Wilkinson, who was in touch in March 2008 with David's granddaughter, who resides in Callander, Perthshire.
 
From Marcus Bateman's website, David is listed as having been born in 1875, and as having a home address of 66 Osborne Place, Aberdeen. Many thanks to Marcus.
 
 

Charles Turnbull
 
Charles Turnbull was named as Vice-Chairman of the new camp entertainments committee (after a strike in the camp) in IRC issue 7, p.8 (Sep 1915).
 
In an article in the Scotsman newspaper of October 27th 1915, Turnbull was also listed as captain of barracks 1, 15 and 16("Ruhleben Camp - Success of Civil Administration", p.9).
 
Turnbull is listed in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.34) as having appeared in the play "Flachsmann als Erzieher".
 
 

John Robert Turnbull
 
John Robert Turnbull is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Turnbull is recorded as having been born on February 14th 1882 in North Shields, and is described as having been a fisherman on the "St. George" prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 36 Rudyard Street, North Shields. At the time the register was recorded, Turnbull was noted as staying in loft B, having been there since his arrival from Senne on October 29th 1915. On January 4th 1918 he transferred to Barrack 9.
 
 

John William Turner
 
John William Turner is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Turner is recorded as having been born on July 7th 1863 in Honington, Suffolk, and is described as having been a saddler prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 23 Holme Lane, Bradford. At the time the register was recorded, Turner was noted as staying in box 8. he returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
 

T. Henry Turner
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds items relating to former inmate T. Henry Turner at RUH 55, the items having been deposited by Turner in 1977. The items are a customs declaration from July 7th 1915; a oostcard to Miss V. M. Hancock in 1916; two bound issues of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (December 1916, June 1917); a bound issue of 'Prisoners' Pie' magazine from 1916; two oil paintings of the North Loft, Barrack 8, painted in 1916; photocopied diaries and miscellaneous papers relating to Ruhleben from 1914 to 1918; and a typed transcript of an interview recorded with Peter Liddle in June 1977, the original audio recording being on tape 441.
 
The online index tells us that Turner was born in 1895 in Stafford and educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and Birmingham University. He was arrested whilst studying German at Heidelberg at the outbreak of the war, and at Ruhleben he stayed in Barrack 8.
 
 

G. G. Tweedie
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, G. G. Tweedie was noted as being from 142 Selborne Street, Liverpool, and as having been born in Edinburgh in 1888. He was arrested in Bremen on 10 OCT 1914. After a brief period held in Bremen, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
Tweedie was noted in the Scotsman newspaper of May 12th 1915 as having sung some popular Burns songs at the camp's first Burns Night celebration ("A Burns Celebration in a German Prison", p.14).
 
 

William Robert Twyford
 
William Robert Twyford is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Twyford is recorded as having been born on February 18th 1875, and is described as having been a sprinkler prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 175 Heywood Street, Cheetham, Manchester. At the time the register was recorded, Sutherland was noted as staying in box 6.
 
Twyford is noted as having been to the sanatorium between May 18th 1917 and February 21st 1918. He relocated to Holland on February 21st 1918.
 
Twyford was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". 
 
 

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