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THE RUHLEBEN STORY

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Prisoners
C - D
 

In many cases, prisoners are referred to by surname only in the source material, making it difficult to know exactly who the individual may have been. This will have led to some duplication in the lists. Check for an individual under their full name, but also under the surname as well.
 
If you can link any of these anonymous surnames to listings with a full name, please contact me so that I can amend the entry.
 

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C
 
 
George Caffrey
 
George Caffrey was noted as being a former Ruhleben inmate in a Times article from November 3rd 1928, which concerned his successful claim for compensation for "exceptional war measures directed against his furniture and personal effects after his internment by the German government in 1914" ("Anglo-German Tribunal", p.4, col. G):
"It appeared that at the outbreak of war the claimant and his wife and child resided at Oberhochstadt, near Frankfurt, the claimant being in the employ of Dr. William M. Cooper, and American dentist, who died in 1920. On November 10, 1914, the claimant was interned at Ruhleben, and, some time in March, 1916, his furniture was removed from Oberhochstadt to Frankfurt and placed with the effects of Dr. Henry J. Moore, a British national, who had left Germany for England in 1914. Dr. Moore's property was sequestered by the German authorities in December, 1916, and the claimant contended that his property, having been placed with Dr. Moore's, was sequestered at the same time."
 
 

H. Cailleau
 
H. Cailleau, of London, was one of fifteen men released from Ruhleben who arrived in neutral Holland on June 7th 1916, as noted in the Times of June 8th 1916 ("War Weariness in Germany", p.7, col.C).
 
 

Bernard Samuel Callaway
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 regarding Bernard Samuel Callaway, an interned invalid civilian at Ruhleben, and the question of his possible exchange, as well as an enquiry from his wife, Mrs. Elsie Callaway, on the Isle of Wight.
 
In the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14), Callaway is listed as having played for Barrack 8 against Barrack 2, in the Ruhleben Cricket League.
 
Further information on Callaway was supplied by Hamburg based golf historian Christopher N. Meister in November 2007: 

Bernard Samuel Callaway was a professional golfer at Cannes from 1904 to 1927. During summer 1914 he was working as professional at Baden-Baden 1914. According to the minute books of Baden-Baden Golf Club Callaway was firstly put under police arrest and then brought to Ruhleben.

David Hamilton of St. Andrews further suggests that Callaway worked also at Maloja, in Switzerland, though the date is unknown. Many thanks to both gentlemen.

 

 

John G. Callander

 

From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that John G. Callander's address was noted as c/o Mrs Davis, 69 Kirkgate, Leith, and that he was born 4 NOV 1893. He was a sailor, arrested in Hamburg on 16 OCT 1914 and after a brief imprisonment in Hamburg was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Alfred Halstead Calvert
 
Alfred Halstead Calvert is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Calvert is recorded as having been born on June 5th 1864 in Leeds, and is described as having been an agent prior to his internment. His home address was 13 Middleton Road, Ilkley, North Bradford. At the time the register was recorded, Calvert was noted as staying in box 27, having arrived on May 15th 1917 from Barrack 18. On January 2nd 1918, Calvert was recorded as having returned to England.
 
 
D. Cameron
 
D. Cameron was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 250 Walton Brick Road, Anfield, Liverpool.
 
 
David Cameron
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that David Cameron was resident at 7 Caledonian Place, Edinburgh, was born in Edinburgh on 14 JUN 1889, was an India rubber worker arrested in Hamburg on 6 NOV 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
 

John Cameron (Jock)
 
John "Jock" Cameron was described in the Scotsman newspaper of January 10th 1916 (p.10) as being a professional footballer interned at Ruhleben.
 
Cameron was captain of the Rest of the World side in a mock international between England and the Rest of the World on May 2nd 1915. Kick off took place at 4.30pm, and a document with the teams listed was recently discovered amongst some Foreign Office files by the National Archives, in November 2005. He was also listed as the secretary of the Ruhleben Football Association.
 
A souvenir booklet by Cameron and Pentland was created in 1915 to reflect the proceedings of the last Ruhleben football season, and was briefly commented on, favourably, in the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp magazine (Sep. 1915, p. 7).
 
Cameron was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.12) as having wanted to postpone the camp's football matches in order that they could be played in a better spell of weather in March, but was voted against.
 
He is further noted as having led the team that won against a side led by Steve Bloomer on March 3rd 1916.
 
Cameron was also listed in the fourth issue of the magazine (August 1916, p.45) as being one of the better players of the new members that had just joined the Ruhleben Tennis Association.
 
Cameron was later noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having led a team to victory against Brearley's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to Cameron's team.
 
 

George D. Campbell
 
George D. Campbell was born in October 1882, and at the time of the 1910 US census was described as a seaman from New York. According to his niece Darleen Hutton, Campbell was interned in Ruhleben at the start of the First World War. Darleen's mother has also suggested that Campbell escaped from Ruhleben, but this has still to be corroborated.
 
 
John A. Campbell
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, John A. Campbell was noted as being from 15 Tittenhall Road, Wolverhampton, and as having been born in Wolverhampton in 1878. He worked as an architect and was arrested in Munich on 6 NOV 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 

J. W. Campbell
 
J. W. Campbell was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 
Julian T. Campbell
 
Little is known of Julian T. Campbell's time at Ruhleben as yet, but he was sketched by fellow internee Harry Pimm:

 
Malcolm Hugh Campbell
 
Malcolm Hugh Campbell is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Campbell is recorded as having been born on December 12th 1893, and is described as having been a student prior to his internment. His home address was The Priory, Rochampton, London. At the time the register was recorded, Campbell was noted as staying in loft B, and on April 25th 1918 he was described as having moved to Holland.
 
In November 2008 I received the following from Neil Owen, who is writing a book on Campbell:
Malcolm Hugh Campbell from Kilmartin, near Oban, was interned in 1914. He claimed he worked as an interpreter whilst in the camp but seems to have made contacts with the Irish Republican movement also.
 
He married a Berlin girl post war called Maria Teiler, went to Eire in 1920 and became a staunch supporter of the IRA via Agatha Bullitt-Grabisch. He was a close friend of  Herr Dr Goebels in the Reichsministerium fur Propaganda (wrote several articles), an acquaintance of the fascist sympathiser Sir Reginald Johnstone (Tutor to the Last Emperor of China) and strongly suspected of being a Nazi spy when he came back to Argyll in 1937-38. Campbell wished to create a Pan Celtic Alliance under the auspices of the Third Reich and even claimed to have influenced Hitler in his theory of racial superiority. He tried to instigate a Volk zur Volk radio connection between Scotland and Germany in 1939. He allegedly received personally signed mail from Goebbels and Hitler to his address in Ardfern in 1937, according to local gossip at that time.
 
Neil can be contacted at neil.owen1 @ virgin.net .
 
 
 
Oliver James Campbell (1888 - 1970)
 
Many thanks to both Gail and Eileen Campbell for the following information supplied in March 2007.
 
Oliver James Campbell was a prisoner at Ruhleben from 1914 to 1918.  He grew up in Mullingar, Ireland, and was working in Germany before the war as a gardener on an estate.  He was accused of being a spy, tried, and although he was not convicted, he was sent to Ruhleben as a prisoner of war. During his internment, he was a prominent member of the camp's Horticultural Society. After the war, Campbell went to Canada where he married later in life (1929, at the age of 41) and raised a family. 
 
 
 
Robert Campbell
 
Robert Campbell's presence at the camp is known from a message from Daniel Macrae in October 2008, following a message posted on the Great War Forum. Robert has in his possession three Ruhleben Christmas cards from 1915-17, signed by a Robert Campbell of Barrack 2 Box 7. (Many thanks to Daniel).
 
 
 

Thomas Campbell
 
Thomas Campbell is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Campbell is recorded as having been born on December 28th 1876 in Elgin, Scotland, and is described as having been a rubber worker to his internment. His home address was 110 Montgomery Street, Edinburgh. At the time the register was recorded, Campbell was noted as staying in loft B, having arrived on April 19th 1915 from Barrack 1.
 
This is most likely the Campbell who was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.15) as having scored a record 117 for Barrack 5 in a cricket match between Barracks 5 and 6, in the second division of the Ruhleben Cricket League. He is also noted as having taken 4 for 8 in the same match.
 
The same Campbell was also noted in this issue (p.22) as having been on the losing Scots Colonial side against the Welsh in a rugby international.
 
 
Walter Campbell
 
Walter Campbell was first engineer of the 'Zealand' and at the time of his internment was noted as being of 131 Chatsworth Avenue, Aintree, Liverpool. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9. During his stay he was noted as residing in Barrack 3. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
Walter was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". 
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Campbell's address is confirmed, and his birth noted as 1867 in Moffat, Dumfriesshire, Scotland. He was a marine engineer arrested on 31 JUL 1914, and after a brief imprisonment on the hulks was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

J. Campion
 
J. Campion was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Cant
 
Cant was interned in Barrack 8 and played for the barrack football team against Barrack 20 in the RFA cup final in April 1917, as noted in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917). The first match was a draw, 1-1. In the replay, three days later, Barrack 8 lost, 3-0.
 
 

Stanley Capleton
 
Stanley Capleton is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Capleton is recorded as having been born on October 29th 1895 in Liverpool, and is described as having been a seaman on the "Oswestry" prior to his internment. His home address was 36 Sydney Road, Liverpool. At the time the register was recorded, Capleton was noted as staying in box 26, having transferred there from Barrack 16 on November 22nd 1917.
 
Stanley was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 36 Sidney (sic) Road in this article.
 
Capleton is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schoningsbaracke, February 3rd and 4th 1918. He later moved to Barrack 16 on February 12th 1918.
 
 

William Thomas Care
 
William Thomas Care is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Care is recorded as having been born on February 14th 1866 in St. Ives, Cornwall, and is described as having been a Donkeyman "Trevider" prior to his internment. His home address was Little-in-Sight, Stennack, St. Ives, Cornwall. At the time the register was recorded, Care was noted as staying in loft B, having arrived on April 19th 1915 from Barrack 14, and later released back to England on March 7th 1918.
 
 

W. Caretless
 
W. Caretless, of Sunderland, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

James Carney
 
James Carney was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 

Caro
 
Caro was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

Douglas Carpenter
 
Douglas Carpenter is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Carpenter is recorded as having been born on 7th October 1879 in Beckenham, and is described as having been a merchant prior to his internment. His home address was 77 St. James Avenue, Beckenham. At the time the register was recorded, Carpenter was noted as staying in the barrack's "R.1", having arrived from Berlin on August 10th 1915.
 
 

E. L. Carr
 
E. L. Carr was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916) as having given a nautical lecture entitled "Formation of Land and Sea".
 
 

Edmund Neil Carr
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/25 relating to Edmund Neil Carr, an inmate at Ruhleben.
 
 
Neil Carr
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that a Neil Carr from Exeter College in Oxford was born in Palamcottah, India, in 1893. He was a student at Brigue and was arrested at Schweidnitz, and sent to Moabite prison in Berlin, before going to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
 
T. M. Carr
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that T. M. Carr was from 11 Ebor Street, Simonside, South Shields, and that he was born in South Shields in 1878. He was a steward, arrested on 4 AUG 1914, and after a brief imprisonment on the hulks, was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
Marcus Bateman's merchant navy POW site states that Carr was a member of the crew of the Lonhghirst, and released to Holland on 23 MAR 1918.
 
 

Richard Herbert Carrad

richardcarradrcm.jpg

Richard Herbert Carrad was appointed in March 1915 by Powell, the camp captain at Ruhleben, to be on the committee of the Kitchen Department, as reported in the Scotsman on 29/3/1915 (p.8) and the Times on 29/3/1915 ("More and Better Food at Ruhleben" p.4 col A). The department's remit was to control the kitchens and all questions regarding the food of the prisoners.
 
Carrad was sketched by C. M. Horsfall for the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p.11), in which he is described as working in the "end kitchen".
 
Carrad's model of a motor boat, built whilst he was interned in Ruhleben, was photographed and displayed in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917).
 
Carrad was released back to England on March 6th 1918. At the point of his release he was noted in the National Archives MT9 files as having been resident in Barrack 17.
 
 

Carrick
 
Carrick was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
F. Carrington
 
F. Carrington is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Carrington was a merchant seaman on board the Saxon Prince, and interned in Barrack 13.
 
 
Norman G. Carrothers
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Norman G. Carrothers is noted as being from Duneane, Ballynafeigh, Belfast. He was a student in Gotha, arrested on 6 NOV 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 6.
 
 

Carruthers
 
Carruthers is noted as being in Barrack 9 Box 11 on a receipt dated 2 FEB 1916, a copy of which is held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber). He may be the W. Carruthers noted below.
 
 
W. Carruthers
 
W. Carruthers was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

Robert Carson
 
Robert Carsonwas one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
Carson, of Liverpool, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

E. Carter
 
E. Carter was a professional golfer who in 1914 was working at Baden Baden, prior to being interned. Many thanks to David Hamilton at St. Andrews for supplying this information in December 2006.
 
 
E. H. Carter
 
E. H. Carter was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 30 Grasmere Road, Huddersfield.
 
 
Fred Carter
 
Fred Carter was noted in IRC issue 7 of having given a lecture on the Belgian Congo, on August 25th 1915, in French.
 
An F. Carter was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 
George Peter Carter
 

Many thanks to Marcus Bateman for supplying the following information on his relative George Peter Carter in January 2007.

 

George was a Pantry Boy on the SS "Brussels", a Great Eastern Railway boat captured on June 23rd 1916. The crew were held as civilian prisoners of war and sent to Ruhleben. The US Embassy movements list No 6 records his transfer from Ruhleben to Brandenburg on November 8th 1916, and a letter in George’s brother Fred’s war service file dated 12th January 1919 refers to a son [George] in Hospital in Germany. It must have been ill health that prevented George’s repatriation in November/December 1918 with the other Prisoners of War. He died 19th February 1919 and was buried in a war grave in Chalons-en-Champagne in France and is listed on the Commonwealth War Graves Commission website database www.cwgc.org.uk.         

 

Marcus has done extensive research at the National Archives on merchant seamen POW files which include a quite a number of seamen who were sent to Ruhleben. His excellent database can be consulted online for free at http://wanborough.ukuhost.co.uk/POW/POW.htm. Many thanks Marcus.

 

 

William Carter
 
William Carter was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
Harry Carterwalsh
 
Harry Carterwalsh was noted as having resided in Barrack 5 on a postcard to Ealing, England, dated 25 DEC 1914, as held in a private collection by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria. (Many thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

Ronald D. Carty
 
Ronald D. Carty was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 concerning Carty, specifically a request for his release as a medical officer of health. This was denied. FO383/189 also contains material from 1916 on Carty, who is noted in the index as being formerly the Chief Assistant City Analyst in Cairo's Public Health Department.

Ronald D. Carty was later noted in issue six of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having produced the play "General John Regan" whilst in the camp.

 

R. Castang
 
In the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp (Sep 1915, p.6), Castang was thanked for his efforts in editing and publishing the Souvenir Election magazine.
 
R. Castang is also noted in the first issue of The Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.8) as having appeared in the 1915 Christmas pantomime in the camp.
 
 

Constable Castle
 
Constable Castle was one of the Ruhleben police force, and was photographed for the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.16) with two Russian children interned in the camp, Stanislas Voinarovsky and Peter Bondarenko.
 
 

William Francis Clemens Castle
 
William Francis Clemens Castle is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Castle is recorded as having been born on December 19th 1891, in Enzersfeld, Austria, and is described as having been a Stud Manager prior to his internment. His home address was c/o G. H. Peck, High Street, Newmarket. At the time the register was recorded, Castle was noted as staying in box 19.
 
Castle is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between April 11th 1918 and April 14th.
 
 

Harry Dougan Catterell
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding enquiries from Mr. H. Cotterell about the possible release of his son Harry Dougan Catterell, interned at Ruhleben camp.
 
 

Catty brothers
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding permission granted to Mr. Arthur Catty to send money to his sons at Ruhleben via Holland, the provision of information on the poor rate of exchange being given, and suggestion of reprisals. Permission to send coupons instead of money is also discussed, as well as a subsequent enquiry when the coupons were found to be not valid in neutral countries.
 
 

Dr. Catz
 
Dr. Catz was named in an article in the Scotsman newspaper of January 10th 1916 (p.10) as being one of the doctors tending to the prisoners in Ruhleben.
 
 

Dr. James Chadwick
 
Dr. James Chadwick was noted as an inmate at Ruhleben in The Times of November 14th 1921 ("University News", p.13, col. C):
The Governing Body of Gonville and Caius College have elected Dr. J. Chadwick a Corporate Fellow of the College. Dr. Chadwick graduated at Victoria University, Manchester, in 1911, and, after having been interned in Ruhleben throughout the whole period of the war, has been working in the Cavendish Laboratory under Professor Sir Ernest Rutherford since Michaelmas, 1919. In the Easter Term, 1921, he was awarded the Ph.D. degree for a thesis upon "The Nuclear Theory of Atomic Structure".
Chadwick went on to discover the neutron, winning the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1935. His obituary in The Times of July 25th 1974 gives some more background to his internment and time at Ruhleben ("Obituary: Sir James Chadwick", p. 20, col F):
"Born in 1891 Chadwick began his career as a physicist under Rutherford at Manchester. Here he investigated the gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials, most of the work being in cooperation with A. S. Russell. Shortly before the First World War he went to the Reichanstalt at Berlin to work with Geiger and was interned in the Ruhleben Camp when war began. In camp Chadwick threw his whole energies into starting experimental research under the difficult conditions of working in a stable. It was there that he met his future colleague, Charles Ellis, who learnt his physics from Chadwick, starting with quantum theory and radioactivity since Chadwick's interest was centred on the work of Planck, Nernt and Rutherford. In Ruhleben Chadwick, with Ellis's help, worked on the ionization of phosphorus and also on the photo-chemical reaction of carbon monoxide and chlorine. Some equipment for this was obtained through the kindness of Professors Planck, Nernt and Lise Meitner; the rst was constructed in the way that all prisoners of war learn."
Chadwick married Aileen Stewart-Brown, daughter of H. Stewart-Brown, in 1925, and the couple had twin daughters.
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds a copy of 'James Chadwick: 1891-1974' by Sir Harrie Massey and N. Feather, from the 'Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society' Vol 22 (Nov 1976). This imprint can be accessed under the reference RUH 08.
 
Chadwick was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 74 Glen Avenue, Blackley, M/c.
 
 
W. Chadwick
 
W. Chadwick was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 285 Litherland Road, Bootle.
 
 

Robert Chalmers
 
Robert Chalmers was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916) as having given a lecture to the M.E.A. Circle entitled "The Rise and Progress of Marine Motors".
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Chalmers was from Hanover, and was born in Forest gate in 1880. he was a commercial correspondent and was arrested in Hanover on 6 NOV 1914, and after a brief imprisonment in Hanover was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 

Arthur James Chambers
 
Arthur James Chambers is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Chambers is recorded as having been born on June 24th 1884 in Grindstone Isle, Canada, and is described as having been a manager prior to his internment. His home address was 105 Avenue du Sud, Antwerp. At the time the register was recorded, Chambers was noted as staying in box 15, having transferred from Barrack 4 on November 27th 1916.
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/27 regarding Chambers, described as an invalided civilian at Ruhleben, in relation to an enquiry from his father, the Reverend James Chambers, chaplain of the English Episcopal Church in Amsterdam.
 
Chambers was noted as having resided in Barrack 4 on a letter from Edinburgh dated 2 FEB 1915, as held in a private collection by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria. Further postcards dated 19 JUL 1915 and 5 NOV 1915 show that he resided in Box 17 (Many thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
A postcard to Chambers whilst in the camp, stamped Monday 19th July 1915, is reproduced in Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History Study of... The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914-1918" (Fig 19). This confrims that Chambers was earlier based in Barrack 4, Box 17. A private order postcard to Chambers from the Ruhleben Book and Music Department is also depicted in the booklet (Fig.24).
 
The National Archives holds further documents from 1916 at FO383/208 regarding the attempts of the Reverend James Chambers to arrange a prisoner exchange involving his son, Arthur, and Louise Pagenstecher, interned at Lofthouse Park near Wakefield.
 
 

James Chann
 
James Chann was one of sixteen men released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Times of January 29th 1917 ("Changed Conditions in Germany", p.8, col. G).
 
 

Chapman
 
Chapman was one of two brothers working as a British trainer in Hoppegarten, who was interned in Ruhleben at the beginning of November 1914, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper on 9/11/1914 (p.9), and in The Times of the same day ("British Interned in Germany", p. 7, col. E).
 
The Scotsman noted on 30/11/1914 (p.9) that he was released from the camp two days prior, on the 28th. He was released because many thoroughbreds had been left on their own in their stables, and had soon gotten out of control. The Germans therefore deemed it wiser to release their trainers than to have them remain interned.
 
 

Chapman
 
This Chapman was the second of two brothers working as a British trainer in Hoppegarten, who was interned in Ruhleben at the beginning of November 1914, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper on 9/11/1914 (p.9), and in The Times of the same day ("British Interned in Germany", p. 7, col. E).
 
The Scotsman notes on 30/11/1914 (p.9) that he was released from the camp two days prior, on the 28th. He was released because many thoroughbreds had been left on their own in their stables, and had soon gotten out of control. The Germans therefore deemed it wiser to release their trainers than to have them remain interned.
 
 

Andrew McEwan Chapman
 
Andrew McEwan Chapman is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Chapman is recorded as having been born on January 8th 1881 in Hurlford, Ayrshire, and is described as having been a moulder prior to his internment. His home address was Hurlford, Ayrshire. At the time the register was recorded, Chapman was noted as staying in box 20, and is noted as having moved to the Tea House on June 5th 1918.
 
Chapman was recorded as having been in Lazarett betwen May 26th 1917 and January 2nd 1918.
 
 
 
William Edward Chapman
 
Many thanks to April Marjoram for the following, sent to me in July 2009:
My ancestor was William Edward Chapman born (abt) 1865 Easington, Yorks; married Alice foster in 1884. He was working on the S.S. Bury which was one of the Great Central Railway steamships which sailed from Grimsby to the continent. It was reported in the Grimsby News on 7 August 1914 "GCR Liner Boarded: Between 8 and 9 o'clock on Friday the Bury was held up by a German squadron consisting of gunboats and torpedo boats......they ordered her to anchor and guarded her all night.........then ordered her to proceed to Hamburg....." I presume that is when the seamen on the vessel were interned. On 28 November 1918 the Eastern Morning News reported "Men, women and children turned out in their thousands to welcome 54 Great Central Railway employees and 127 fishermen from German prison horrors......the party included officers and crew of the steamship Bury.....these vessles were all in German waters when war broke out.....unfortunately Captain Russell and Chief engineer Jackson of the SS Bury died in internment".
April has a photo of a card of gratitude signed by the crew of the SS Bury and two other Great Central Railway steamships, including the signature of WE Chapman.
 
 
 
William Henry Chapman
 
William Henry Chapman is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Chapman is recorded as having been born on June 2nd 1867 at Portsmouth, and is described as having been a fisherman prior to his internment. His home address was 5 Robert Street, Grimsby.  At the time the register was recorded, Chapman was noted as staying in loft B, having moved there from Barrack 6 on April 8th 1916. he is noted as having returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
 
W. W. Chapman
 
W. W. Chapman was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 51 Withnell Road, S.S., B'pool.
 
 
W. W. Chapman
 
Another W. W. Chapman was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 18 New Cannon Street, M/c.
 
 

Charke
 
Mr. Charke is noted in a document in FO 369/710 as having been sent to Ruhleben on 9 SEP 1914. The information originally was compiled by the American Embassy in Berlin. No other information is given for him.
 
 
John Charlton
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, John Charlton was noted as being from 147 Grandly Lane, Erdington, and as having been born in Birmingham in 1894. He worked as a mariner and was arrested in Hamburg on 16 OCT 1914. After a brief spell imprisoned on the hulks in Hamburg, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 8.
 
 
Charnley
 
Charnley was named in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p. 32) as being a recent inclusion to the camp's Barbarians rugby team, and as having been a recent member of the United Services squad.
 
 

William Norman Charnley
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that William Norman Charnley was from High Mount, Blackburn, and was born in Blackburn on 8 JUN 1894. He was arrested in Hamburg on 6 NOV 1914, and after a brief period of imprisonment on the hulks, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds various items on Ruhleben prisoner W. M. Charnley (sic), which were placed in their hands by his son P. R. Charnley. These include a diary, initially of a holiday but then of his internment at Ruhleben, from between July 30th and December 10th 1914; three issues of 'In Ruhleben Camp' from July 11th 1915, September 12th 1915, and October 1915; six photographs from 1917; and a Christmas Dinner menu from 1942. The online index to the collection tells us that Charnley was arrested whilst on holiday in Hamburg and interned at Ruhleben. He later served as a Flight Lieutenant in the Second World War. The items can be found at RUH 09.
 
Charnley was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as High Mt., Billinge, Blackburn.
 
An advert from the Manchester Guardian of June 18th 1915 (p.5), entitled "Letters from the Front", givees the following product endorsement by Charnley:
W. N. Charnely, Prisoner of War, Ruhleben, Germany, writes:
 
"I was the lucky recipient of a box of your delicious "De Rerzke" cigars. They were quite up to their usual standards of excellence, and were thoroughly enjoyed by everyone under these exceptional circumstances".
 
NB: This may be the same Charnley as listed earlier.
 

J. W. Chicken
 
J. W. Chicken was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 
William Chivers
 
William Chivers was a seaman, formerly resident at the Windsor Hotel in Cardiff. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9. Chivers resided in Barrack 2. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

Thomas Christenson
 
Thomas Christenson was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 
Ross Church
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Ross Church was from Redlands, Cliftonville, Northampton, and was born in Northampton in 1896. he was a student in Calw, and was arrested on 6 NOV 1914 and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Dr. Hugo Cimino
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO 383/25, concerning the release of Dr. Hugo Cimino from Ruhleben.
 
The Scotsman newspaper of June 14th 1915 also notes the publication of "a shilling volume which contains an account by Dr. Hugh Cimino of his experiences of six months Behind the Prison Bars in Germany" which had been sent out by Messrs George Newnes Ltd of London. The volume "tells how its author, after having been arrested before the declaration of war, with, as he says, "some shadow of a cause" - he had some compromising maps in his possession - was passed through various prison camps and detention camps, including that of Ruhleben, and saw much of the sufferings of the British civilian prisoners" (Miscellaneous Work, p.2).
 
 

Alphonse Clad
 
Alphonse Clad is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Clad is recorded as having been born on December 23rd 1894 in Bradford, and is described as having been a wool merchant prior to his internment. His home address was Hopedale, Nabwood, Shipley, Yorkshire. At the time the register was recorded, Clad was noted as staying in box 9.
 
 
Maxwell Clapham
 
Maxwell Clapham was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9. During his stay he was interned in Barrack 14. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
A gentleman named Clapham is also noted as having been in the Teahouse on a letter dated 4 MAR 1916, held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

 
 
W. H. Clare
 
W. H. Clare was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Levington, Rutland Road, Eccles.
 
 
Coleby Clark
 
Coleby Clark was one of five Englishmen released from Ruhleben in August 1916, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper of August 8th 1916 ("Conditions at Ruhleben - Insanity Among Prisoners", p.5).
 
 

Edward Clark
 
Edward Clark was an internee from Newcastle, who was to eventually marry composer Elisabeth Lutyens (daughter of Sir Edward Lutyens) in 1938. In her later autobiography, she mentions that 25 year old Edward had been on his way to the theatre in Stettin prior to the war to take up his first professional post, when he was arrested and removed to Ruhleben.
"Six months before the end of the war...the members of the samp at Ruhleben were eagerly awaiting the pinning up of the names of the English to be exhanged. One of the names was Clark and his friends rushed to give him the news on the football field. he waitied for the finish of the match and caught the train to The Hague with a minute to sapre - in his football shorts."
The National Archives in London holds documents from 1915 at FO383/69 concerning an enquiry from Mr. J. B. Clark of Newcastle-on-Tyne regarding any official limit as to the amount of money that may be supplied to his son in Ruhleben. This is likely to be Edward. The 1891 census for Newcastle has a man called James Bownen Clark with his family, including a Thomas Edward Clark.
 
After his release, Edward had a successful musical career at the BBC, as both a conductor and musical advisor. (Many thanks to Stephen Lloyd for his help in October 2007.)
 
 

James Clark
 
James Clark was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

Stuart Clark
 
Stuart Clark was a British Ruhleben prisoner released in October 1916, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper of October 9th 1916 ("Released from Ruhleben - Arrival of British Party at Rotterdam", p.6).
 
Clark was also noted in the Times of October 7th 1916 ("Back From Germany", p.7, col. E) as one of five men released from Ruhleben in September 1916, who were hospitably cared for by the Society of Friends.
 
 

A. Clarke
 
A. Clarke was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
This may be the Clarke listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 

Alfred Henry Frank Clarke (1874 - 1940)
 
Alfred Henry Frank Clarke was born in Bristol in 1874 and died in Torquay in 1940. He was a civil engineer and went by the name of Rome in later life. 
 
The following e-mail was received from Doug Johnston in January 2007, for which I am eternally grateful.
In March 1918 the German Raider Wolf returned from the far east with some 600 prisoners on board. Amongst them were a number of civilians that eventually found their way to Ruhleben via Gustrow. Amongst these was A H F Clarke who wrote "To Kiel on the German Raider Wolf and beyond", a copy of which is in the IWM (includes his time at Ruhleben). Added to the book is a copy of a picture of several of those who were from the Hitachi Maru. I have an original copy of the picture plus another similar one. Unfortunately only A H F Clarke is identified and whilst the names of the others are on the back of the card there is one more name than there are people. NB: the copy in the IWM states that it was taken at Ruhleben which is incorrect as it was taken at Gustrow. The IWM also have another original copy of the photograph in their photographic section which is correctly identified as being at Gustrow. Clarke does identify that most or all of those listed on the back of the card went to Ruhleben.

A. H. F. Clarke and six other civilian POWS interned at both Gustrow and Ruhleben

 
 
David Clarke
 
David Clarke was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 27 year secretary who had been working in Berlin.
 
 
James Clarke
 
James Clarke was one of nine men over the age of 55 released from Ruhleben at the beginning of May 1916, as noted in the Times of May 9th 1916 ("British Prisoners from Germany", p.5, col.F).
 
Clarke was noted as the "chief officer of the President, interned at Hamburg at the outbreak of the war".
 
It is not known if this is the same James Clark (without an 'e') as noted above.
 
 
R. Clarke
 
R. Clarke is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Clarke was a merchant seaman on board the Coralie Horlock, and interned in Barrack 23, B.
 
 
W. P. Clarke
 
W. P. Clarke was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as The Gardens, Fenay Hall, Huddersfield.
 
 
A. Clements
 
A. Clements is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Clements was a merchant seaman on board the Saxon Prince, and interned in Barrack 10, loft 2.
 
 

Arthur Cliffe
 
Arthur Cliffe is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Cliffe is recorded as having been born on May 22nd 1864 in Abergele, Denbighshire, and is described as having been a university lecturer prior to his internment. His home address was 12 Kingsworth Gardens, Folkestone. At the time the register was recorded, Cliffe was noted as staying in box 2, and is noted as having returned to England on March 7th 1918.
 
 

Sam Clifford
 
Sam Clifford was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 76 Silverdale Street, Higher Openshaw, Manchester.
 
S. Clifford was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Clive
 
Clive was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
John Henry Cloran
 
John Henry Cloran was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9. Cloran was interned within Barrack 12. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

J. Cluness
 
John Cluness, was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
Cluness, of Leith, was also named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
Herbert Coates
 
Herbert Coates was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 27 year old businessman who had been working in Berlin.
 
Coates was listed as being at Ruhleben in another file in FO 369/710, dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
Coates is further noted in a document in FO 369/710 as a 27 year old English born accountant sent first to Berlin's Stadtvogtei on 17 AUG 1914 and then to Ruhleben on 9 SEP 1914. He had been residing at 27 Furbringerstrasse in the city. The information originally was compiled by the American Embassy in Berlin.
 
 
R. S. Coates
 
R. S. Coates was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 445 Grafton Street, Dingle, Liverpool.
 
 

Arthur Claude Cobham
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/73 regarding the reported death of Arthur Claude Cobham, a language teacher interned at Ruhleben. He died in Germany at the provincial asylum at Neu-Ruppin, and the documents contain arrangements for the forwarding of his death certificate and personal effects.
 
 

Harry Cocker
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Harry Cocker is noted as being from Greetland, near Halifax, and that he was born in Elland in 1885. He was a merchant in Krefeld, and appears to have bene arrested on three occasions - 3 SEP 1914, 21 SEP 1914 and 6 NOV 1914. After a brief imprisonment in Krefeld he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
Harry Cocker was appointed in March 1915 by Powell, the camp captain at Ruhleben, to be joint vice-chair, with Norman Robson, of the Canteen Department, as reported in the Scotsman on 29/3/1915 (p.8) and the Times on 29/3/1915 ("More and Better Food at Ruhleben" p.4 col A). The department's remit was to control and administer the camp canteens and to handle all questions connected with the purchase and sale of goods in the camp.
 
In an article in the Scotsman newspaper of October 27th 1915, Cocker was listed as captain of Barracks 4 and 21 ("Ruhleben Camp - Success of Civil Administration", p.9).
 
Cocker was noted as having resided in Barrack 4 Prom on a receipt dated 21 NOV 1915, as held in a private collection by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria. (Many thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
Amongst the inmates at Ruhleben, Francis Gribble noted in his essay "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook"
"Mr. Cocker, who had previously dealt in toffee, had, if I am not mistaken, a good deal to do with the management of our dry goods store. It was largely too, to the merchants among us that we owed those social clubs which did something to diversify camp life for those who could afford to join them."
 
 

Dr. Cohen
 
Dr. Cohen is listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 
Israel Cohen
 
Israel Cohen is noted in the seventh issue of the In Ruhleben Camp magazine as having given a paper on Israel Zangwell, one of the papers on the four "Modern English Thinkers" read in the Grand Stand Hall on August 30th (p.2. September 1915). A further article entitled "What's Wrong With the World" expands on the paper as discussed by him (p.10). He was also thanked for his efforts in editing and publishing the Souvenir Election magazine.
 
He is further noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.22) as having given an account of Thackeray to a recent Thackeray evening held by the Debating Society in the camp.
 
Cohen, of London, was one of the fifteen men released from Ruhleben who arrived in neutral Holland on June 7th 1916, as noted in the Times of June 8th 1916 ("War Weariness in Germany", p.7, col.C). In the article he described how flags were hoisted over the camp to celebrate a British naval victory over the Germans earlier that month. He was described as being the Berlin correspondent of the Globe and the Glasgow Herald.
 
Cohen was further noted in Times of February 17th 1917 as preparing to take part in a demonstration of relatives and friends of the Ruhleben interned at Kingsway Hall on February 26th (p.11, col. G). A summary of the meeting was later carried in the paper on February 27th 1917 ("British Prisoners in Germany", p.5, col. B). Cohen was also listed in a 48 page pamphlet published in 1917 by the Ruhleben Prisoners' Release Committee (thanks to Jim Mackay, Dec 2007).
 
The Times of March 6th 1917 carried an advertisement for Cohen's new book (p.4, col. G):
THE RUHLEBEN PRISON CAMP
 
A Record of Nineteen Months' Internment. By ISRAEL COHEN (late Chairman of the Ruhleben Literary and Debating Society). With 29 Illustrations and a Plan. Demy8vo. 7s.6d.net. [March 8.
 
This is the most comprehensive and vivid account of the conditions at the Ruhleben Camp. The book describes all the phases and episodes of the Camp from the outbreak of war, and is enlivened throughout by numerous anecdotes.
The Scotsman newspaper of March 8th 1917 contained a review of Cohen's book "The Ruhleben Prison Camp: A Record of Nineteenth Months Imprisonment" (p.2). In the review, Cohen is stated to have been a member of Barrack 6, aka "the Ghetto". Cohen was again described as a former correspondent of the Globe and Glasgow Herald newspapers, and in Ruhleben was a chairman of the Ruhleben Literary and Debating Society.
 
On Friday 20th April 1917, Cohen gave a lecture on his experience in the camp at the Central Hall, in Tollcross, Edinburgh (Scotsman advert, p.1, 11/4/1917).
 
The Scotsman gives further details of this lecture. It states on April 21st 1917 (p.6) that Cohen had been arrested as a Russian spy at Schandau, near Dresden, where he had been on his holidays, but was soon released. At the end of August 1914 he returned to Berlin, but was re-arrested, and imprisoned for four days. He was then let out, but remained under police surveillance. he was arrested yet again on November 6th 1914 and sent to Ruhleben.
 
Cohen's obituary was carried in The Times of November 27th 1961 ("Mr. Israel Cohen", p.18, col. F).
 
A copy of Cohen's book "The Ruhleben Prison Camp: A Record of Nineteen Months' Internment" is held at the Imperial war Museum in London, at ID:106-1.
 
 

William S. Cohn
 
The Times of January 20th 1915 (page 4, col. A) tells us that a postcard sent to the paper and signed by Ruhleben inmates John W. Lintner, A. J. Dolphin, R. L. Nunn, Wm., Stern, E. Williams and W. S. Cohn wished for a "happy Christmas and a brighter New Year".
 
The National Archives in London hold a documents from 1915 at FO383/27 with regard to W. S. Cohn, namely an enquiry from the US ambassador.
 
In the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.22), the following barbed comments concerning Cohn appears in the "By the Way" section:
Mr. Cohn's remarks concerning our coloured compatriots appear to have caused a little resentment. It is only natural, however, that the children of Israel should not find favour with the descendants of Ham.
William was one of nine prisoners released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Times of January 12th 1917 ("Nine Prisoners Released from Ruhleben", p.5, col. B).
 
 

Samuel Francis Gladstone Coles
 
Many thanks to Shirley Middlecoate for the following guestbook entry to this site in May 2007:
My husbands grandfather Samuel Francis Gladstone Coles was captured by the Germans whilst fishing on the steam trawler Chameleon on August 25th 1914 & subsequently interned in Ruhleben POW Camp until Nov 23rd 1918. Other members of the crew were Cornelius Betts, Edgar Boyce, Edward Burman, Frank Hanneman, Thomas Patchitt, C Rodgers, George Williamson, Benjamin Wilson, all from Grimsby/Cleethorpes area.
This may be the Sam Coles noted in the Football section of the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as being responsible for the football ground, along with two other inmates, George Page and Ted Hearn.
 
Coles was also noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing A side in a second division match between the A team and the B team on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 

David Coleshill
 
David Coleshill is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Coleshill is recorded as having been born on June 8th 1867 in Manchester, and is described as having been a fitter prior to his internment. His home address was 33 Newton St. Gorton, Manchester. At the time the register was recorded, Coleshill was noted as staying in loft B, and is further noted as having eventually returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
Coleshill was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". 
 
 

W. J. Coller
 
In the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14), Coller is noted as having played for Barrack 2 against Barrack 8 in the Ruhleben Cricket League.
 
Coller is further recorded in the fourth issue of the magazine (August 1916, p.38) with an average cricket score of 54.66 runs per inning, having scored 328 runs in total for 9 innings in several July matches, three times not out.
 
The Manchester Guardian of August 19th 1915 (p. 6) names Coller as having been bowled out by O' Neill in a Lancashire versus Yorkshire Cricket match.
 
 

W. L. Coller
 
W. L. Coller was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 21 Westwood Street, Moss Side, M/c.
 
W. L. Coller was thanked in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.37) for his contribution to the theatre during 1916.
 
 

J. A. Collier
 
J. A. Collier, of Goole, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

W. Collin
 
A letter addressed to internee W. Collin was placed for sale on E-Bay in June 2005. The envelope only was displayed, but from this we learn that W. Collin was based in Barrack 7, box 16. The letter was stamped 4.15pm 10/1/1917. A further card has been identified from March 17th 1917, with the same barrack details.
 
Another postcard to Collin, franked January 10th 1917, was reprinted in Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History Study of The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914 - 1918" (Fig.35), confirming that he was in Barrack 7, box 16.
 
Philatelist Jim Mackay kindly contacted me in December 2007 to say he also had a cover with a set of stamps dated to March 17th 1917, wit W. Collins written on it., He suspects however that this may in fact be a post-war forgery.
 
 

William E. Collins
 
William E. Collins was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
As 'W. E. Collins', he was also noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

John Collinson
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that John Collinson was resident at 22 Edward Street, Bradford, was born in Bootle, England on 8 APR 1892, was a hotel waiter, was arrested in Frankfurt on 6 NOV 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
Collinson was noted as playing on the Rest of the World side, led by Cameron, in a mock international between England and the Rest of the World on May 2nd 1915. Kick off took place at 4.30pm, and a document with the teams listed was recently discovered amongst some Foreign Office files by the National Archives, in November 2005.
 
 
P. Colquitt
 
P. Colquitt is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Colquitt was a merchant seaman on board the Coralie Horrock, and interned in Barrack 9 Box 26.
 
 

G. W. Comins
 
G. W. Comins, of Hull, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Percy Arthur Edward Conant
 
Percy Arthur Edward Conant is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Conant is recorded as having been born on November 20th 1885 in Aix-le-Chapelle, and is described as having been a gentleman of independent means prior to his internment. His home address was 15 Kupferstr., Aachen. At the time the register was recorded, Conant was noted as staying in box 22.
 
Conant is also recorded as having had periods of leave from the camp between February 7th 1918 and March 1st, and April 16th 1918 to May 8th.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Conant is noted as being a landowner from Aachen, born 1885. He was arrested on 6 NOV 1914, and after a brief period held in Aachen and Cologne was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 

James Peebles Conn
 
James Peebles Conn was a music student from Edinburgh University who was interned in Ruhleben after the outbreak of war. The Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.8) recorded the text of the following postcard sent to Edinburgh University:
"Best greetings to the old 'Varsity from the following students and ex-students at present resident at Ruhleben - James L. Mounsey; H. J. W. Tillyard, lecturer in Greek; W. J. Crosland Briggs, M.A., 1914; Harold Luck, M.A., 1913; M. F. Liddle, M.A., 1909; J. Halliday, M.A., 1914; James Peebles Conn, Bucher scholar in music, 1902; J. M. Dickson, M.A., BSc., Agric.; R. Herdman Pender, M.A., teacher in George Heriot's School; E. G. Burgoyne, J. Fleming, 1895-97; Robert McNeil, 1905-6; Eric G. Riddell, 1908-9, former students."
In the Scotsman of May 12th 1915 (p.14), in an article entitled "A Burns Celebration in a German Prison", it is noted that Conn sent a letter to his parents, Bailie and Mrs. Conn of Penicuik, in which he described the conditions at Ruhleben, including the weather, the football matches, the concerts, and the Burns Night celebration held in the camp, which included orchestral and part song arrangements by Conn himself. The article also mentioned that prior to the war, Conn was a former holder of the Buch Scolarship of the University of Edinburgh, and that at the date of internment he was a concert-meister in a German municipal orchestra.
 
Conn was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.11 and p.41) as having been voted onto the committee of the newly formed Ruhleben Music Society, at a meeting on Thursday June 15th, attended by some 36 musicians in the camp. A typical musical contribution by Conn to life in the camp is recorded in the Musical Notes section of the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917):

"Much good work has been accomplished in the Chamber Music evenings. Two unfamiliar works have been brought to a hearing - the noble and gracious Sonata in E flat. of Brahms, for Viola and Pianoforte,a choice example of the composer's ripest period of creative activity, played with fine feeling by Messrs. J. Peebles Conn and W. Pauer; and Dvorak's Terzetto for two violins and viola, an engaging little work, played with excellent ensemble and understanding by Messrs. Peebles Conn, T. H. Marshall and Leslie Harris."

The magazine goes on to say:

"The gradual improvement of the orchestra under the splendid training of such fine musicians as Mr. Peebles Conn, Mr. McMilland and Mr. Weber paved the way for the regular orchestral concerts which have proved such a welcome feature of our captivity."

The Scotsman newspaper of April 30th 1918 carried news of Conn's eventual release ("Scottish News", p.4):

Bailie Conn, Penicuik, has received intimation that his son, Mr. J. Peebles Conn, a well known musician, who has been interned in Ruhleben Camp, Germany, since the outbreak of war, has now been removed to Holland.

Peebles Conn was also recorded in The Times as being about to give a concert at the Ruhleben Exhibition on Friday, February 7th, with fellow former Ruhleben musicians, all of whom had been professional musicians captured in Bayreuth. The article appeared on January 30th 1919 in the Times ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.11, col. F).

 

William Connelly
 
Seaman William Connelly, of Newolce, Grimsby, was quoted as being a Ruhleben prisoner in a Scotsman newspaper article from January 10th 1916 (p.10). In the article, Connelly described how he had been arrested whilst on board his ship on August 3rd 1914, after they had been overtaken by several German torpedo boats 150 miles off the English coast, in the North Sea. The crew were sent to Wilhelmshaven, and then on to Sennelager camp, accused of being mine layers, rather than fishermen. By the time of the article's publication, Connelly had been freed and returned to England.
 
Conelly (sic) was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 
 

J. H. Conry
 
J. H. Conry was an inmate who was mentioned in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having completed construction of a model of a launch motor and crankshaft, pictures of which were shown in the publication.
 
 
J. Consadine
 
J. Consadine is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Consadine was a merchant seaman on board the Euclid, and interned in Barrack 17.
 
 
W. Cook
 
W. Cook was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 81 Baslow Street, Beswick, M/c.
 
 

Charles W. M. Cookson
 
Charles Cookson was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 26 year old 'angestellter' (staff) who had been working in Berlin.
 
Cookson was listed in another file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
The National Archives in London also hold documents from 1915 at FO383/51 regarding a signature for a power of attorney for Charles W. M. Cookson, a British civilian interned at Ruhleben.
 
Charles was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 596 Stretford Road, Manchester.
 
Cookson is noted in several photocopied items of correspondence held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria as having been in Barrack 11 box 9. The items are a postcard from Woodcote Camp (Epsom) dated 7 MAR 1915, a postcard from Paris, a postcard dated 30 JUL 1915 from Bern and a postcard from Rotterdam dated 3 FEB 1916 (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 
Charles Cooper
 
Charles Cooper is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Cooper was a merchant seaman on board the Duke of Wellington, and interned in Barrack 17.
 
 
Fred Cooper
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Fred Cooper is noted as being from 99 Fore Street, London. He was a clerk, arrested in Apolda on 21 OCT 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 6.
 
 

Herbert Cooper
 
Family tradition has it that prior to his internment, Herbert Cooper was on business in Germany in July 1914, his occupation at the time being that of company secretary to the Standard Motor in Coventry.
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University holds a range of items relating to Ruhleben inmate Herbert Cooper, located at RUH 11, and deposited into the collection in May 1977 by R. W. Cooper. The online index tells us that Coper was interned in Ruhleben and Holland between 1914 and 1918.
 
The items in the collection contain: a passport issued by H. M. Acting Consul General at Berlin on August 3rd 1914); a bound volume containing issues of 'The Link', from Easter 1917, and 'Prisoners' Pie', from January 1916; photocopied sketches and cartoons from between 1915 and 1918; a published memorial to the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, regarding compensation for British Civil Prisoners of War, with a list of support; a pamphlet calling for compensation for British Civil Prisoners of War from June 17th 1925); a published copy of correspondence between the Prime Minister and the Civil War Claimants' Association, from June to November 1926); a bound copy of letter from Herbert Cooper to William Graham Esq, President, Board of Trade, dated February 17th 1930; 44 slides; and six photographs, with negatives.
 
Many thanks to Herbert's first cousin twice removed John Chambers for his contribution to this entry in June 2007.
 
 
R. S. Cooper
 
R. S. Cooper was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 1 Rimmers Avenue, Southport.
 
 

Walter Roylands Cooper
 
Walter Roylands Cooper is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Cooper is recorded as having been born on February 19th 1885 in Nottingham, and is described as having been an engineer prior to his internment. His home address was 37 Claypole Road, Forest Side, Nottingham. At the time the register was recorded, Cooper was noted as staying in box 13.
 
Cooper is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between May 29th 1918 and June 2nd.
 
After the war, Cooper was noted in The Times of November 9th 1931 as being one of the former inmates of Ruhleben present at a dinner meeting held in November 1931 by the Ruhleben Association, which was held to discuss an appeal to the House of Lords for the group's claims for compensation ("Reunion of Ex-Ruhleben Prisoners", p.17, col.D).
 
 

Edward A. Coote
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO 383/25 concerning Edward Coote, interned at Ruhleben.
 
Coote is also noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.36) as having given a literary lecture on "Milton".
 
In the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p.6), we learn that Coote, of Barrack 10, returned to England on March 19th 1916.
 
 

Copeland
 
Copeland was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (1915, p.22) as being on the winning Welsh side against the Scots-Colonial team, in a friendly rugby international at the camp.
 
 

Copping
 
Copping was noted in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p.15) as having given a nautical lecture in the camp's school entitled "Notes on fans and ventilators".
 
 
A. Cordiner
 
A. Cordiner was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 
 

J. Corless
 
J. Corless was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.22) as having contributed to a debate entitled "That the Abolition of Trade Unions would not be to England's Benefit", with Corless arguing against the motion.
 
He is also noted in issue six of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having produced the play "The Yeomen of the Guard" whilst in the camp.
 
Corless was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as c/o A. Stewart and Son, 48 Castle Street, Dundee.
 
 

Christopher John Cornforth
 
Christopher John Cornforth from West Hartlepool was a prisoner in Ruhleben. He was an engineer in the Merchant Navy, it is believed on board the S.S. Rosenborg making a proving voyage to Danzig. It is believed he was taken prisoner and then held on a Polish farm before being taken to Ruhleben, where he was interned between 1915 and 1917 in Barrack 11.  There is also a class list from Harvard depicting a C. Cornforth as one of the French instructors in 1917, giving his Barrack as Barrack 7 box 11.
 
With thanks to both Sue and Christine Pierce for supplying the above information in March and July 2007.
 
 
A. S. Corran
 
A. S. Corran was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
He was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 23 Heyes Street, Liverpool.
 
 
George S. Cosgrove
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, George S. Cosgrove was noted as being from "Oaklene", Southgate, London N., and as having been born in London in 1895. He was a law student and was arrested in Bremen on 6 AUG 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7. 
 
 
S. Cosgrove
 
S. Cosgrove was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 38 Boundary Street, Liverpool.
 
 

Leland A. Cossard (Crossart, Cossart)
 
Lelan A. Cossard is the addressee on a postcard franked February 24th 1916 which was reprinted in Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History Study of The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914 - 1918".
 
Cossard (aka Crossart or Cossart) is also noted as having been in the Teahouse Box 5 on several items of correspondence held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria. these are a letter dated 24 FEB 1916, a letter dated 26 FEB 1916, a letter dated 23 FEB 1916, a letter dated 21 FEB 1916 (where Box 5 appears to be described more specifically as a goat hut), a postcard dated 25 FEB 1916 and a postcard dated 21 FEB 1916 (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 
Cotterill
 
Cotterill is named as an independent member of the new camp entertainments committee (after a strike in the camp) in IRC issue 7, p.8 (Sep 1915).
 
 

Thomas Cottrell-Dormer
 
Thomas Cottrell-Dormer is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dormer is recorded as having been born on December 4th 1894 in Steeple Aston, and is described as having been a student prior to his internment. His home address was Rousham, Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire. At the time the register was recorded, Cottrell-Dormer was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 7 on November 13th 1915.
 
Cottrell-Dormer is also recorded as having spent some time in the Bird Cage between March 18th 1918 and March 23rd. He is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between July 9th 1918 and August 1st.
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University holds many items pertaining to Cottrell-Dormer's time at Ruhleben, all of which were donated by his daughter, Miss F. Cotrell -Dormer. These are five photographs, three of which relate to the Ruhleben Horticultural Society, from November 1914; a copy of 'Ruhleben Camp Magazine' Vol. II, No. 5, from December 1916; 2 Christmas postcards from 1914 and 1917; a hand-painted and autographed dinner menu from September 1st 1915; 2 pencil sketches; a hand-painted calendar from 1917; a typescript poem; three letters from between September and December 1914; two letters from German friends written upon the outbreak of the First World War, dated August 31st 1914 and December 19th 1914; three postcards and one letter to Mrs Cottrell-Dormer from Alick Garden, a medical friend of Thomas', from December 1st 1917, August 2nd 1918, August 31st 1918, and September 29th 1918; three letters to Mrs Cottrell-Dormer from British Civil Prisoners of War, interned at Ruhleben, dated June 17th 1916 and October 4th 1916; five letters and seven postcards to his mother and father, from between August 1st and December 18th 1914); a letter and eight postcards to his mother, from between January 6th and September 25th 1915; seven letters and six postcards to his mother, from between January 6th and December 8th 1916; ten letters and six postcards to his mother, from January 15th to December 5th 1917; seven letters, six postcards and two telegrams to his mother, from between January 2nd and November 28th 1918; typescript letters and press cuttings relating to negotiations for the release of British Civil Prisoners of War interned at Ruhleben, from November 4th 1916 to November 6th 1917; press cuttings relating to the deaths of his brothers Clement Cottrell-Dormer and Charles Melville Cottrell-Dormer, from February 25th 1915; a memorial service booklet for Clement Cottrell-Dormer from October 1914; and a memorial service booklet for Charles Melville Cottrell-Dormer, from February 18th 1915. The reference number for this collection is RUH 10, and the online index tells us that he was interned from 1914 to 1918.
 
 

Edward Henry Couling
 
Edward Henry Couling was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9. He was interned within Barrack 2. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 
Coulthard
 
Coulthard was noted in the football section of the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as being a member of Barrack 11.
 
 
G. Coulthard
 
G. Coulthard is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Coulthard was a merchant seaman on board the Euclid, and interned in Barrack 17.
 
 

William Couper
 
William Couper is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Couper is recorded as having been born on February 3rd 1876 in Hurlford, Ayrshire, and is described as having been a manager prior to his internment. His home address was 3a Sandstr., Ratingen. At the time the register was recorded, Couper was noted as staying in box 20.
 
 

Francis Hurrell Cove
 
Francis Hurrell Cove is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Cove is recorded as having been born on March 11th 1882 in Salcombe, Devon, and is described as having been a schoolmaster prior to his internment. His home address was 4 Courtney St., Salcombe, Devon. At the time the register was recorded, Cove was noted as staying in box 13.
 
 
Covil
 
In a list of prisoners from the Wolf transferred to Ruhleben in A. H. F. Clarke's "To Kiel on the German Raider Wolf and Beyond", Covil is noted as a Ruhleben prisoner from Singapore, captured on the ship Hitachi Maru in early 1918. See entry for Alfred Henry Frank Clarke.
 
 

Alfred Cowan
 
Alfred Cowan is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Cowan is recorded as having been born on January 6th 1879 in Liscard, Cheshire, and is described as having been a cook on the "Trevider" prior to his internment. His home address was 9 The Grange, Liscard, Cheshire. At the time the register was recorded, Cowan was noted as staying in loft B, having transferred from Barrack 14 on April 19th 1915. He later moved to Holland on February 21st 1918.
 
 

Harry Cowdell
 
Harry Cowdell is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Cowdell is recorded as having been born on October 14th 1889 in Ipswich, and is described as having been a cook on the "Queen Mab" prior to his internment. His home address was 45 Buliver Road, Ipswich. At the time the register was recorded, Cowdell was noted as staying in loft B, having moved there from Barrack 20 on July 15th 1917. He was later noted as having moved back to Barrack 20 on Januray 2nd 1918.
 
 

Frederick Cox
 
The National Archives in London holds a recorded interview from 1915 at FO383/69 with Frederick Cox, one of a party of invalided British civilians departed from Ruhleben in Germany. The folder also include a report of Mr. Cox, with an allegation made that he was pro-German.
 
Cox was noted as having resided in Barrack 4 Box 4 on a postcard to Boston, Massachussetts, dated 23 FEB 1915, as held in a private collection by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria. (Many thanks to Dr. Heber). Another postcard by Cox, stamped March 15th 1915, is found in Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History study of...The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914-1918" (Fig 4a,b). The card tells us again that Cox was based in Barrack 4, and was addressed to C. F. Gardner, c/o British United Shoe Machinery Co. Ltd, Leicester Union Works, England. The text reads:
My dear Gardner,
 
Ellison and the boys have shown me several postcards received from you at different times, and I was very pleased to gather that you and yours are well. Am very glad and you can be thankful that you have escaped undergoing the experience which has been my lot this last four months. The uncertainty of its duration is very trying, also the fact that influential friends are powerless to help me, and every card received from Mrs Cox does not improve matters, she is of course anxious about me, although I am thankful to say my health and spirits are as well as can be expected under the circumstances.
 
Hope you received my postcards ordering goods for myself and the boys. Thanks for your trouble in the matter.
 
You can write me and inform my friends that they can write me with discretion, but I cannot reply as the one card allowed per week I must reserve for Mrs Cox. 
 
Please give my kindest regards to Mr. and Mrs. Paine, and Mrs Bunnion, and accept same and best wishes for Mrs. Gardner, yourself and family. Believe me to remain,
 
Yours sincerely,
 
F. Cox. 
 
 

Charles Harley Coy
 
Charles Harley Coy is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Coy is recorded as having been born on November 21st 1876 in Grantham, Lincolnshire, and is described as having been a teacher prior to his internment. His home address was Steinmetzstr. 28, M. Gladbach. At the time the register was recorded, Coyr was noted as staying in box 6, and is further noted as having been given indefinite leave on September 21st 1917.
 
 
Albert William Craig
 
Albert William Craig was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9. Craig was interned within Barrack 7. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, an Albert Craig was noted as being from The Vilage, Old Charlton, and as having been born in Old Charlton in 1896. He worked as a clerk and was arrested in Nordenham on 6 NOV 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 

James Craik
 
James Craik was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
The National Archives in London holds at FO383/69 a memorandum prepared by former Ruhleben inmate James Craik, of Aberdeen, compiled after his release in 1915.
 
 

Cramp

 

The German magazine Lawn Tennis & Golf also reports that a golf professional by this name was arrested and sent to Ruhleben. Cramp was the second professional golfer at Hamburger Golf Club in 1914, when he was arrested. A certain B.H. Cramp became professional at Penn Common, Wolverhampton in 1919. (Compendium of British Club Makers, by Peter Georgiady, Airlie Hall Press, Greensboro, NC, U.S.A.).

 

Many thanks to Hamburg based golf historian Christopher N. Meister for supplying this information in November 2007.

 

 

Charles Craven
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Charles Craven was resident at 36 Bessborough Street, Westminster, London, was born in Manchester in 1878, was a teacher arrested in Eberswalde on 4 NOV 1914, and after a brief spell confined in Eberswalde and Stettin was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
 
Alfred Crawford
 
Alfred Crawford was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
He was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Peel Arms Hotel, Accrington.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Alfred was again noted as being an engineer from Peel Arms Hotel, Acccrington. He was arrested in Scheit on 5 AUG 1914 and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 6.
 
 

Cyril George Crawford
 
Cyril George Crawford is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Crawford is recorded as having been born on September 19th 1895 in London, and is described as having been a student prior to his internment. His home address was c/o P. Keen, 123 Victoria Street, London. At the time the register was recorded, Crawford was noted as staying in box 2, having transferred there from Barrack 10 on May 8th 1915.
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/46 regarding the trial of Cyril Crawford at Hamburg, following the arrest of both him and his father, the Reverend George W. Crawford, the late British chaplain at Hamburg, on charges suspicion of espionage. The documentation contains communications from his uncle, A. E. Bredin Crawford of Eastbourne, details on the return to England of Reverend and Mrs. Crawford, and on the removal of Cyril Crawford to Ruhleben following the suspension of all charges.
 
 
Crawley
 
In a list of prisoners from the Wolf transferred to Ruhleben in A. H. F. Clarke's "To Kiel on the German Raider Wolf and Beyond", Crawley is noted as a Ruhleben prisoner from Ceylon, captured on the ship Hitachi Maru in early 1918. See entry for Alfred Henry Frank Clarke.
 
 

W. H. Crellin
 
Liverpool seaman W. H. Crellin was a Ruhleben inmate released from the camp in December 1915, who made his way back to Tilbury on board the merchant ship Mecklenburg, as noted in The Times of December 23rd 1915 (p.6, col.B). In the article, he described how the inmates relied on their parcels from home to survive, and gave a description of the regulation food the inmates were forced to eat. The food was so bad that Crellin described going to infirmary once a month to get meal of steak and onions, and occasionally of roast beef. He also described the appalling bedding of starw that was initially used in the camp, before bags of shaving arrived, which were more comfortable.
 
 
George W. Crewdson
 
George W. Crewdson was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 53 Dafforn Road, Tooting, London S.W. (of Ulverston).
 
 
George P. Critchett
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, George P. Critchett is noted as being from 45 Arcot Road, Penarthy, South Wales, and as having been born in Penarth in 1895. He worked as a ship's steward and was arrested in Hamburg on 3 AUG 1914. After a brief period held on the hulks in Hamburg he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 

Robin Bruce Croad
 
Robin Bruce Croad is noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.36) as having given a science lecture on "Food and Food Products".
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 regarding an enquiry from Mr. A. Knight Croad about his son at Ruhleben.
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University holds a few items relating to Croad's time at Ruhleben, under reference number RUH 12. The items, donated by his daughter M. E. Gough, are: a photograph album (1917-1918); a photocopied curriculum vitae; and a photocopied portrait sketch. The online index to the collection tells us that Croad was born in 1891, and educated at Melton Mowbray Grammar School , Worcester Cathedral Kings School, the Royal Technical College in Glasgow and Leipzig University. He was interned as a POW at Ruhleben between August 1914 and November 1918. It is also noted that he was a chemist by profession.
 
 
R. Cropper (jun)
 
R. Cropper (jun) was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Causeway Farm, Crossens, Southport.
 
 

Frederick George Crosby
 
Frederick George Crosby was sent to Ruhleben after being captured from the S.S. Colchester en route from Tilbury to Rotterdam on the night of September 21st/22nd 1916.
 
Later, on 8th November, he was sent to Brandenburg military camp as it had been decided to treat Merchant Naval personnel as military prisoners.
 
According to his grandson, Philip Smith, he had another interesting episode previously, when he was serving as Second Officer on the SS Brussels with a Captain Fryatt, who was subsequently executed by the Germans for his part in attemting to ram a submarine.  Philip was told by his grandfather that he was also sentenced to death for being involved, although there is no documentary evidence of this that he can find. The sentence if it was passed, was not carried out.
 
During his time at Ruhleben, Crosby may have been a "wardrobe mistress" for the camp drama/music group, though this may have been at Brandenburg.
 
 

Crosier
 
The National Archives in London hold douments from 1916 at FO383/206 regarding a report by the son of Mr. William Crosier in Ruhleben, who was surviving on emergency rations.
 
 

G. L. Crosland
 
G. L. Crosland is recorded in the fourth issue of the magazine (August 1916, p.38) with an average cricket score of 43.11 runs per inning, having scored 388 runs in total for 9 innings in several July matches.
 
 

Crossland
 
Crossland is noted in the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.32) as having co-written the play "Jimmie's Last Crime", with fellow writer Mr. Hallam, which was performed on March 23rd 1916.
 
 
F. S. Crossley
 
F. S. Crossley was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Roselands, Ellesmere Park, Eccles. 
 
 
Dr. Martin Cruickshank
 
Martin Cruickshank was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 26 year old doctor who had been working in Munich.
 
Dr. Cruikshank is also listed in another file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 
Herbert H. Crute
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Herbert H. Crute was from 11 Oakwood Street, Sunderland and was born 27 NOV 1894 at Seaham Harbour. he was a clerk, arrested in Bentheim on 28 AUG 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

C.W. Culling

 

Culling was a professional at Darmstadt some 40 miles south of Frankfurt where a golf club was founded in 1911. At the outbreak of the war all play was suspended at the Großherzoglicher Golf Club Darmstadt.

 

On September 29th, 1914, Culling wrote a letter to his friend offering his services as a golf professional as he had nothing to do. The Club has been closed up and it was not intended to take up the game again, as Culling states. (American Golfer, November 1914).

 

At the same time the club tried to get rid of the English Golf professional and his wife who had charge of the restaurant. Mr. Culling and his wife refused to leave. In the beginning of November 1914 Culling was sent to the concentration camp at Ruhleben, whereupon his wife returned to England. The personal effects of the pair have been stored in a room at the clubhouse. This relieved the club of much expense. (American Golfer, May 1915).

 
Many thanks to Hamburgh based golf historian, Christopher N. Meister, for supplying the above in November 2007.
 
 
John Culpin
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Ruhleben POW John Culpin was from Park Road, Peterborough, and was born in Doncaster in 1895. He was a student at Heilbronn, Stuttgart, where he was arrested, after which he was sent to Moabite prison in Berlin, before going to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
 
Thomas Cummings
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Thomas Cummings is noted as being from Newcastle, where he was born in August 1884. He was a seaman, and was arrested in August 1914 in Hamburg, and after a brief imprisonment on the hulks was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
 

William Joseph Cunningham
 
William Joseph Cunningham was born in 1896 in Belgium, where the family ran a furrier business based in Mons. In 1914 while some of the family, notably his sisters, escaped to England, 18 year old William was interned at Ruhleben.
 
William's granddaughter holds many documents of his time at Ruhleben, and in August 2006, her partner, Tony Clarke, e-mailed the following, for which I am extremely grateful:

"We have about two dozen contemporary pictures - of him, a few other camp characters, camp life, a 1917 camp Christmas card, his vegetable and cigarette ration cards and a blank german Ruhleben Englanderlager postcard. The pictures heavily feature players and costumes of the Empire Theatre and we wonder whether William, due to the family trade, was involved in making some of the theatre costumes. The Ibberson fairy wings (see The Ibberson Photographs) are like some pictured on his little sister before the war. We also have some interesting dramatic postcards of the Revolution in Berlin in 1918-19.

"William's father Arthur Cunningham lived in Belgium, as a jockey for King Leopold II of Belgium. Arthur was born in 1868 - but unfortunately in Malta, so we cannot prove the emigration theory there. His son William was fairly short at 5ft 4 and the whole jockey/ racecourse link is a little ironic. Presumably after his career as a jockey Arthur became a furrier.

"Arthur married Anna Maria Lopez (hispanic descent?) while in Belgium. Some of the family, including William, inherited a Mediterranean complexion and brown eyes, possibly as a result of this marriage. Anna was born in 1873 in Belgium. We have her Ausweis card, presumably from German occupied Belgium, and a temporary British identity document for Anna aged 41 dated early 1915. She had stated a Jersey address (friends or family?) and was travelling to Guernsey for some reason. Maybe it was an indirect way to get to the UK.

"We think William returned to meet his sisters (possibly other family
members) in England after the war by boat. We have some unexplained pictures of a paddle steamer called Emperor, with William and his wife pictured with others on deck in Bournemouth later, around 1928. Possibly an inmates' reunion or nostalgic visit? We don't know whether there was an official homecoming operation, or whether inmates sailed ad hoc to return to home ports."
 
Williams' granddaughter and partner, Tony Clarke, can be contacted at forge.cottage@btinternet.com.
 
 
Gavin Currie
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Gavin Currie was noted as being from "Adiade", Lenzie, Lanarkshire, and as having been born in Hamilton in 1895. He worked as a chauffeur and was arrested in Bad Nauheim on 26 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Bad Nauheim and Giessen, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 

Curry
 
Curry was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing A side in a second division match between the A team and the B team on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 
Cyril Curtis
 
Cyril Curtis was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 24 year old businessman previously at work in Berlin.
 
Curtis is also listed in a document in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The name was included in a list communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 

A. R. Cusden
 
A. R. Cusden was noted in a Scotsman newspaper article of April 12th 1916 as having contributed to and co-edited the "Prisoners' Pie" annual, printed in Ruhleben ("Prisoners Pie - A Souvenir of Ruhleben Camp", p.5).
 
A. E. Cusden (sic) was specifically thanked for his illustrations for the Ruhleben Camp Magazine by the editor, C. G. Pemberton, in the fifth issue (Christmas 1916, p.62).
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds several items relating to Cusden's time at Ruhleben, at reference number RUH 13, all of which were placed in the collection by his widow Elspie between January and June 1978. The items include: a manuscript diary from August to October 1914; a New Year issue of 'Prisoners' Pie' magazine from January 1916; a silver-plated stud from a statue of Hindenburg in Berlin; a hollowed out pencil; an original and mounted photostat of a letter to James Cusden from 'The Daily Mail', from April 1918. The online index tells us that Cusden was interned throughout the war, and that he was co-editor of "Prisoners' Pie".
 
Cusden's brother Victor was also interned in the camp - see below.
 
 

Victor V. Cusden
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University holds several items relating to Ruhleben inmate Victor V. Cusden, which were placed by him into the collection between October 1977 and July 1978, all of which can be referenced at RUH 14. He was the brother of A. R. Cusden, who was also interned. The items are: a typescript of recollections entitled 'Lingering Rays'; a pencil portrait sketch from 1916; a Ruhleben Camp School Membership Card, from the autumn term of 1917; and eight photographs. The online index also tells us that Cusden was interned in Barrack 10 and after the war had a career in the Consular Service.
 
   
E. Cusel
 
E. Cusel was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 76 Upper Tulse Hill, London S.W. (of Manchester).
 
Cusel is also noted as being in Barrack 10 on a postcard to Hamburg dated 15 JAN 1916, as held now by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

Mario Cutayar
 
Signor Mario Cutayar was made fun of in a sketch in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.37), when it was suggested that after the war, he should become a swimming instructor.
 
Cutayar was also recorded in The Times as being about to give a concert at the Ruhleben Exhibition on Friday, February 7th, with fellow former Ruhleben musicians, all of whom had been professional musicians captured in Bayreuth. The article appeared on January 30th 1919 in the Times ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.11, col. F).
 
 

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D
 
 
E. M. Dadd
 
E. M. Dadd was a prisoner who had the honour to be lampooned by way of an illustrated monogram in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917), drawn by artist CMAW.
 
 

E. S. Dagnall
 
E. S. Dagnall was sketched for the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.39), in a drawing depicting him in an acting role at the camp. The description reads:
"Mr. E. S. Dagnall of the S.S. Nicoya as "Victoria" in "The Dear Departed" at the Frivolity".
 
 

Carl Dahm
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 on 65 year old Carl Dahm, namely an enquiry from his son, William Dahm.
 
There is a further reference in the archives to Carl at FO383/78, with regard to the potential misuse of British passports seized by German authorities, specifically, an allegation from Dahm, after having been released from Ruhleben and residing in Clapham Park. There is also mention of the transmission to him of personal documents received from his daughter in Germany, Miss Kate Dahm.
 
 

Julius Carl Neville Dahm

Julius Carl Neville Dahm is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dahm is recorded as having been born on July 21st 1895 in Bonn, Germany, and is described as having been an engineer prior to his internment. His home address was 16 Deansville Mansions, Clapham Park, S.W. At the time the register was recorded, Dahm was noted as staying in box 13.
 
Dahm is also recorded as having gone on leave between April 3rd 1918 and May 8th.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Dahm is noted as being from Bonn a. Rhein, and as having been born in Bonn in 1895. He worked as a motor engineer in Wesel, where he was arrested on 13 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Wesel, Munster and Celle, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
The National Archives in London hold documents at FO383/206 relating to an enquiry by Mr. C. Dahm, concerning parcels addressed to his son, Julius Dahm, at Ruhleben, posted by both himself and the Dutch Red Cross, the Dutch having claimed that all of their parcels had been delivered safely.

 

George Dakin
 
The Scotsman newspaper reported on March 9th 1916 that George Dakin had been released from Ruhleben a couple of days earlier ("Released from Ruhleben", p.5).
 
In the Scotsman dated March 11th 1916, further information appears on Dakin. He was taken on board the steamship Kilkenny at Rotterdam along with seven other ex-Ruhleben prisoners, twenty women from Germany and 150 Belgians. They arrived at Tilbury, and it wasw expected that there would be 250 prisoners from Ruhleben released, not the eight that in fact were ("Released from Ruhleben", p.7).
 
The article has specific information on Dakin:
Mr. George Dakin, a well-known figure in the lace making industry in Long Eaton, said he had been carrying on a business in Ruhleben, and was arrested in November 1914. He was placed in solitary confinement in prison for three days. He was then taken to Dresden and put in prison. Locked up in another place were Mr. Sylvester, Mr. S. Pearson, and the brothers Hickley, all of Nottingham. After being taken to Berlin, they were sent to Ruhleben, where they found the camp very rough for a time. They were packed like herrings in a box, said Mr. Dakin, at that time. The food was not bad, but it soon got worse, until they had to subsist entirely on parcels sent from England. They at first had a beef-steak-and-onions day once a week, but that was abolished.
 
 

Henry William Dakin
 
Henry William Dakin is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dakin is recorded as having been born on March 29th 1885 in London, and is described as having been a leather dresser prior to his internment. His home address was Kripp bei Sinzig 7 Rhein. At the time the register was recorded, Dakin was noted as staying in loft A, and is later noted as having been given leave on May 18th 1917, until January 31st 1918.
 
 
A. Dale
 
A. Dale is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Dale was a merchant seaman on board the S. S. Hull, and interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Benjamin J. Dale

Benjamin J. Dale was born in London in 1885, and later died there in 1943. He was in Germany at the outbreak of war and was interned until March 1918. According to an e-mail from Dr. David Roberts received in June 2006, although his musical compositions are still well thought of today, he did not write a great deal, apparently because of the effect that his internment at the camp had on his health. David has also provided the following quote found in "Bax: A Composer and his Times, 2nd edn" (Lewis Foreman, (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1983), p.171):

Dale had been taken from Ingolstadt where he had been staying on holiday and was initially held at Ruhleben Camp, the internment camp built on a racecourse near Berlin. Later, having broken his arm while playing tennis, he promised not to escape and lived on a farm in Holland. A reception marked his return home.

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians states that Dale was released from internment in March 1918, but the Tertis book indicates that he was not repatriated until October. Many thanks to Dr. Roberts for this contribution.

In a Scotsman article entitled "A Burns Celebration in a German Prison" (May 12th, 1915, p.14), Dale was reported, by way of a letter from James Peebles Conn to his parents, to be a London composer and teacher at the Royal Academy in London, and was noted as accompanying Lindsay and Conn in a concert held in the camp on May 2nd 1915.
 
Dale was further noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp as having been voted onto the committee of the newly formed Ruhleben Music Society, at a meeting on Thursday June 15th, attended by some 36 musicians in the camp (p.11 & p.41). 
 
Dale was later thanked for articles written for the Ruhleben Camp Magazine by its editor, C. G. Pemberton, in the fifth issue (Christmas 1916, p.62).
 
 

James Walter Dale (1888-1962)
 
James Walter Dale is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dale is recorded as having been born on August 28th 1888, and is described as having been a clerk prior to his internment. His home address was Tetney, Nr Grimsby. At the time the register was recorded, Dale was noted as staying in box 25.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Dale is noted as being from Tetney, Lincolnshire, and as having been born in Grimsby in 1888. He worked as a clerk in Bochum, where he was arrested on 6 NOV 1914. After a brief period held in Bochum and Hagen, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
Dale had in fact been working as a chemist in Bochum when he was arrested in 1914, and spent four years at Ruhleben camp. His daughter Sylvia Atkinson, who contacted me in August 2005, says that the only record that she has of his time in Ruhleben is an old camp library book that he owned. James was apparently always reluctant to talk of his time at Ruhleben, though Sylvia believes that he performed in Gilbert and Sullivan productions at the camp, and also worked there as an interpreter.
 
 
Dalphines
 
Malhuren Dalphinis was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. Malhurin was described as a 33 year old businessman who had been working in Charlottenburg.
 
As Dalphines he is also listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 
Frank Dalton
 
Frank Dalton is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Dalton was a merchant seaman on board the City of Leeds, and interned in Barrack 3, loft.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Dalton is noted as being from 148 Hessle Road, Hull, and born in 1880. He was a shipwright arrested on 31 JUL 1914, and after a brief imprisonment on the hulks was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Albert Dannhorn/Dennhorn
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Albert Dannhorn was resident at 28 Lamb's Conduit Street, London W. C., was born in London on 17 NOV 1892, was an engineer arrested in Berlin on 17 AUG 1914, and after a brief spell confined in Berlin's Stadtvogtei prison was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
As Albert Dennhorn he was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 21 year old engineer who had been working in Berlin.
 
As Danhorn he was listed elsewhere in a file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The name was included in a list communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
In the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp, Dannhorn presented a letter on behalf of the committee of the camp's British Ruhleben Association, denouncing the sending of a letter to the British Foreign Office by a sub-committee member on the full committee's behalf, supporting the medal issue to which the main committee had already objected. Dannhorn is further noted as being from Barrack 2, box 17, and of being the B. R. A.'s Honorary Secretary (Sep 1915, p.37).
 
In the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.32), Dannhorn is listed as having appeared in the play "The Younger Generation", and of having been a terrible actor!
 
 

Guy Darnell
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds items relating to Ruhleben inmate Guy Darnell, placed in the collection by the widow of his brother Harry, called Hazel Darnell, and which can be accessed at RUH 15. The items include: 62 photographs and picture postcards, from between February 10th and November 14th 1918; a photostat photograph; five tickets for Canteen Stores, Lavatory, Barber's, Hot Water and Workers Dinner; a YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) Membership Card of Guy Darnell from February 1916; a YMCA Amateur School of Boxing Membership Card of Guy Darnell from 1916; an article 'Ruhleben - The Third Anniversary', reprinted from 'The Daily Mail' of November 6th 1917; a pamphlet entitled 'The Ruhleben Prisoners: Some Recent Parliamentary References', from November 1917; an invitation to Harry Darnell from the Burgh of Leith, from November 18th 1918. The online index also tells us that Guy Darnell was interned throughout the war, initially in Barrack 5 and then Barrack 6.
 
Guy's brother Harry was also interned - see below.
 
 

Harry Darnell
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University contains items relating to Harry darnell's internment, held at RUH 16. These items have been filed with those of his brother Guy at RUH 15 (see above), and were deposited by his wife Hazel in March 1977.
 
 

Davidson
 
Davidson was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

John Davidson
 
John Davidson is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Davidson was a merchant seaman on board the S. S. Hull, and interned in Barrack 8 loft 5.
 
A John Davidson was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 

Davies
 
This Mr. Davies was noted in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p.15) as about to give a nautical lecture on "Fuel" to the camp's school. It is not known which Davies this was as yet, as there were least two gentlemen called Davies in the camp who were both merchant seamen. It may be that he was Alfred Davies (see below).
 
 

Davies
 
The Scotsman newspaper of January 10th 1916 carried an article entitled "First Englishman From Minden Camp" (p.10), which concerned the story of Mr. Davies, of Peckham Road, Camberwell, London S.E., who as well as being an inmate at Minden, was also interned for a time at Ruhleben. Whilst at Ruhleben, Davies was treated by the camp doctor for consumption, and then sent to a sanitorium for a spell, before being returned to Britain.
 
 

Alfred Davies
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Alfred Davis is noted as being from 454 Gorton Road, Reddish near Manchester, and as having been born in Reddish in 1879. He was an engineer in Neuss, where he was arrested on 5 SEP 1914. After a brief period held in Cologne, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
As Alfred Davies, he is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Davies is recorded as having been born on February 24th 1879 in Handforth, Cheshire, and is described as having been an engineer prior to his internment. His home address was 454 Gorton Road, Reddish, Stockport. At the time the register was recorded, Davies was noted as staying in box 6.
 
Alfred was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as above.
 
A postcard from Davies was posted to The British Red Cross and Order of St. John, Copenhagen, Denmark, on November 11th 1916. The card was put up for sale on E-Bay in July 2005, and confirms that Davies was in Barrack 5, box 6 at the time of postage. The reverse of the card was not displayed on the sale page.
 
 
C. Davies
 
C. Davies was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
David Davies
 
David Davies is noted in a document in FO 369/710 as a 34 year old Englishman sent to Ruhleben on 9 SEP 1914. He had been residing at 61 Neukölln, Panier. The information was originally compiled by the American Embassy in Berlin.
 
 
Edward Davies
 
Edward Davies was chief engineer of the 'Capricornus' and at the time of his internment was noted as being of 93 Ravenspurn Street, Grimsby. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

E. J. Davies

irc3ejdavies.jpg

E. J. Davies was the subject of a humorous advert in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.24):
E. J. Davis (Bar 7) Private Detective Agency. Divorce proceedings a speciality. Missing deck chairs traced and recovered. For terms apply Green Room "Frivolity Theatre".
Davies was sketched for the third issue of In Ruhleben Camp (July 1915, p.19) to show how he appeared as Sherlock Holmes in the camp's production of "The Speckled Band".
 
In the seventh issue Davies announced that there would be a "Grand Eisteddfod" in November inside Barrack 21 (Sep 1915, p.31).
 
Davies was also noted in the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.32) as having produced the play "The Younger Generation".
 
 

Horace Morgan Davies
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Horace Morgan Davies was resident at Nant-Coch Bedwas, Mon, was born in San Angelo, Texas, USA on 9 JUL 1888, was an engineer arrested in Berlin on 6 NOV 1914, and after a brief spell in Berlin's Stadtvogtei prison was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
Davies was noted as playing on the Rest of the World side, led by Cameron, in a mock international between England and the Rest of the World on May 2nd 1915. Kick off took place at 4.30pm, and a document with the teams listed was recently discovered amongst some Foreign Office files by the National Archives, in November 2005.
 
 

J. Davies
 
J. Davies, of Cardiff, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Robert Edward Davies
 
R. E. Davies, of Liverpool, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
From Marcus Bateman's site we learn that Robert was in fact second officer of the 'Nicoya' and at the time of his internment was noted as being of 20 Harrowby Road, Seaforth, Liverpool. A prioner within Barrack 8, he was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238.
 
Davies was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as above.
 
 
Robert H. Davies
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Robert H. Davies was from Sunderland, and born in 1888. He was an enginner, arrested in Hamburg, and after a period on the hulks was sent on to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
 

W. B. Davies
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/39 regarding W. B. Davies, detained in Ruhleben, namely a request for assistance to obtain new glasses and eye treatment, and an enquiry from his father, the Reverend W. Davies of Denmark Hill, London.
 
Davies was later listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
In The Times of January 10th 1916, an article entitled "Food in Ruhleben Camp" gives the background to Davies' capture and his experience at the camp:
"Among a number of British civilians who have just been released from the internment camp at Ruhleben in consequence of an exchange of prisoners, and who reached home on Saturday, is Mr. W. B. Davies, son of the Rev. W. Davies of Camberwell. Mr. Davies is a young man who was engaged as a tutor in Germany for about eight months prior to the war. On the 4th day preceeding the declaration of hostilities between Great Britain and Germany he was arrested after having been assailed by a mob in the streets, and was interned for a time in a newly-formed camp at Minden, and later at Ruhleben. He is emaciated and temporarily broken in health, and has lost the sight of one eye."
The article further describes the food conditions at the camp as experienced by Davies, as well as a tip offered by him to the relatives of those interned, suggesting that it would be better to send the prisoners money, rather than food, as the food sometimes took up to a month to reach the camp and often went off before it arrived.
 
 
 

Davis
 
Davis was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.19) as being a member of the Ruhleben Dramatic Society.
 
 
John Davis
 
John Davis was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 20 Teilo Street, Cardiff.
 
Possibly the Mr. Davis noted in in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.19) as being on the winning Welsh side against the Scots-Colonial team, in a friendly rugby international at the camp.
 
 

Carl Ernest Davis
 
Carl Ernest Davis is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, David is recorded as having been born on September 4th 1882 in London, and is described as having been a haberdasher prior to his internment. His home address was Gronanweg 5, Bonn. At the time the register was recorded, Davis was noted as staying in box 4.
 
Davis is also recorded as having spent some time in the Lazarett between June 3rd 1918 and June 14th.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, David is noted as being from 9 Darenth Road, Stoke Newington, London, and as having been born in Tottenham in 1882. He worked as a merchant in Bonn, where he was arrested on 5 SEP 1914. After a brief period held in Bonn and Cologne, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 

E. Davis
 
E. Davis was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Sydney John Dawes
 
Sydney John Dawes is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dawes is recorded as having been born on June 9th 1879 in Wolverhampton, and is described as having been a chauffeur prior to his internment. His home address was listed simply as Antwerp. At the time the register was recorded, Dawes was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 6 on December 7th 1915. he is further noted as having left for Holland on April 25th 1918.
 
 

J. R. Dawson
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University holds items relating to inmate J. R. Dawson, held at RUH 17. These are a photograph of Barrack 7's Cricket XI, and two typed transcripts of an interview recorded with Peter Liddle between September and October 1977, the original tapes holding the recordings being tapes 479 and 476. The online index tells us that Dawson was born in 1896 near Ripon in Yorkshire, and that he was working with the South German Insurance Company in Munich from January 1914, before being arrested and sent to Ruhleben, where he spent the entire war in Barrack 7.  
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, J. R. Dawson was noted as being from 13 Kings Road, Harrogate, and as having been born in Kirkby malzeard, near Ripon, Yorkshire, in 1896. He worked as a clerk and was arrested in Munich on 6 NOV 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 

Roger Mark Cooper Day
 
Roger Mark Cooper Day was one of the internees photographed with the Ruhleben Parcel Post - see Alfred Hazell King's entry for the image (he is listed as M. C. Day). 
 
Day was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
J. de Kay ( T. de Kay / J. de K---?)
 
A J. de Kay is noted in the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp as having provided a translation of The Jerry Builder from the original Yiddish (Sep 1915, p.12). It is not known if "de Kay" was his actual name, or an abbrevation. His first initial was also listed as "J" in the introduction, but signed "T" at the end of the article.
 
 

De Lamos
 
The wife of De Lamos was noted in the Times of October 7th 1916 ("Back From Germany", p.7, col. E) as having returned to Britain after being expelled from Germany, whilst her husband remained a prisoner in Ruhleben.
 
 

Fred Deane
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/42 regarding Fred Deane, a South African interned at Ruhleben, namely an enquiry from his mother, Thora Deane of Flensburg, Denmark.
 
 

F. Sefton Delmer
 
F. Sefton Delmer was an Australian who was in Germany from the outbreak of the war until May 23rd 1917, and who was interned in Ruhleben between November 1914 and March 1915.
 
Delmer was noted in the Scotsman of May 12th 1915 as having given the address at a Burns Night celebration in Ruhleben ("A Burns Celebration in a German Prison", p.14).
 
Delmer was also noted as an inmate by Francis Gribble, in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook".
"...the men of light and leading in religious matters were Professor Delmer, of Berlin, Mr. Cecil Duncan Jones, the novelist, and my own fellow townsman, Mr. Bossum, of Barnstaple, who had been living in Germany as a teacher of languages."
"At the head of it (university) was the Science and Arts Union, organised by Mr. Hattfield, a distinguished chemist, with whom were associated, among others, Professor Delmer, whom I have already mentioned, Mr. Klingender, the Curator of the Gosling Museum, and my friend Mr. Prichard - a society to which our own Education Office has been sending a large supply of education books."
The following from the Times of June 5th 1917 gives more to his background (Berlin To-Day" p.7, col. G):
Mr. Delmer from 1901 until 1914 held a lectureship in English at the University of Berlin, and at the end of the period he was also director of the English Seminary of the Berlin Commercial University. On the outbreak of war he was deprived of all his positions and emoluments.
 
From November, 1914, to March, 1915, he was interned at Ruhleben, and, although he was then released, and consequently was able for more than two years to observe the development of events in Berlin, none of his repeated applications for repatriation was granted until last month.
 
Mr. Delmer rejected Prussian offer of naturalization, and has no intention of accepting the invitation of the German educational authorities to return to Germany after the war.
There then followed an eleven part article describing Delmer's return to liberty, his thoughts on the German situation, life in Berlin etc, serialised in the Times until June 18th 1917. 
 
For more on Delmer's story, visit http://www.seftondelmer.co.uk/.
 
 
William Desmond
 
William Desmond was boatswain on the 'Victorian Transport' and at the time of his internment was noted as being of 54 Pontypridd Street, Cardiff. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Desmond was interned within Barrack 19. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 
Devine
 
In a list of prisoners from the Wolf transferred to Ruhleben in A. H. F. Clarke's "To Kiel on the German Raider Wolf and Beyond", Devine is noted as a Ruhleben prisoner.
 
 
Harold Dewhirst
 
Harold Dewhirst was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 139 Great Western Street, Moss Side, Manchester.
 
 
J. Dickinson
 
J. Dickinson was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as c/o Auchterlone and Co., Fazakerley Street, Liverpool. 
 
He is possibly the John E. Dickinson noted as one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

J. M. Dickson
 
J. M. Dickson was an Edinburgh University man who was interned in Ruhleben after the outbreak of war. The Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.8) recorded the text of the following postcard sent to Edinburgh University:
"Best greetings to the old 'Varsity from the following students and ex-students at present resident at Ruhleben - James L. Mounsey; H. J. W. Tillyard, lecturer in Greek; W. J. Crosland Briggs, M.A., 1914; Harold Luck, M.A., 1913; M. F. Liddle, M.A., 1909; J. Halliday, M.A., 1914; James Peebles Conn, Bucher scholar in music, 1902; J. M. Dickson, M.A., BSc., Agric.; R. Herdman Pender, M.A., teacher in George Heriot's School; E. G. Burgoyne, J. Fleming, 1895-97; Robert McNeil, 1905-6; Eric G. Riddell, 1908-9, former students."
A gentleman named Dixon is noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14) as having played for the Varsities team against the Rest of Ruhleben, in the Ruhleben Cricket League. This 'Dixon' may have been a wrongly transcribed 'Dickson'.
 
Dickson also had the 'honour' to be lampooned by way of a monogram drawn in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917), by artist CMAW.
 
 

Diensby
 
Diensby was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
Henry J. Diggle
 
Henry Diggle was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. Henry was described as a 27 year old correspondent who had been working in Berlin.
 
It seems likely this is the same Diggle who was listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710, dated 11 OCT 1914 (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
H. J. Diggle's signature was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth on July 22nd 1916, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. He was interned in Barracks 11 and 12.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
 

Charles Dinse
 
Charles Dinse was noted in the Scotsman newspaper of May 12th 1915 as having danced the sword dance at the camp's first Burns Night celebration ("A Burns Celebration in a German Prison", p.14).
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Dinse was from 13 Fort Place, Leith, and born in Leith in 1886. He was a fireman, arrested on 31 JUL 1914, and after a brief imprisonment on the hulks, was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Dischmann
 
Dischmann was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

A. N. Dixon
 
A. N. Dixon is noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14) as having played for the Varsities team against the Rest of Ruhleben, in the Ruhleben Cricket League.
 
Dixon was noted in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p. 29) as having been a member of a football team led by John Cameron, which defeated an opposing side led by Steve Bloomer on March 3rd 1916.
 
Dixon is also noted in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magzine (August 1916, p.37) as playing cricket for the Barrack 7 side. He is further recorded as having an average cricket score of 38.75 runs per inning, having scored 155 runs in total for 5 innings in several July matches, once not out.
 
 
F. Dixon
 
F. Dixon was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. He was interned in Barrack 11.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
 
F. G. Carr Dixon
 
F. G. Carr Dixon's signature was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth on May 23rd 1915, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. He was interned in Barrack XI 3/4 and came from Hexham on Tyne.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
 
Hugo Norton Dixon
 
Hugo Norton Dixon was born in Ormskirk, England, in Q4 1892. At the outbreak of the war, he was based in Bremen, where he worked for an American cotton company, and was soon arrested when the detention order was executed. 

Dixon recorded his experiences prior to the war and at Ruhleben from 1914-1916 in order to practice the French he learned in the camp. The three diaries were later deposited at Shelby County Archives in Tennessee, with Dixon having relocated to the United States after the war and become something of a highly regarded philanthropist. The diaries, partially translated, are now available online, with an introduction, at http://register.shelby.tn.us/dixon/. During his internment Dixon, was based in Barrack 7 Box 22. (With thanks to Lee H, who emailed me in Jan 2013).

An H. Dixon was named in an article in the Manchester Guardian of Auguist 19th 1915 (p.6) as having participated in a Lincolnshire versus Yorkshire cricket match at Ruhleben.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Dixon was noted as being from 16 Park Avenue, Southport, and as having been born in Southport in 1892. He was arrested in Bremen on 11 OCT 1914, where he had been working in the cotton industry. After a brief period held in Bremen, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 
James Dixon
 
James Dixon is noted in a document in FO 369/710 as a 24 year old English born officer (discipline unknown) sent to Ruhleben on 9 SEP 1914. He had been residing at 7 Stegl. Albrechtsrasse in Berlin. The information was originally compiled by the American Embassy in Berlin.
 
 
William Dixon
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that William Dixon was from 16 Collingwood Terrace, Dunston-on-Tyne, and was born 14 MAY 1894. He was a clerk in Altona and arrested in Hamburg, where he was imprisoned on the hulks before transfer to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
Marcus Bateman's merchant navy POW site lists him as a seaman on the Cogent, and confirms his address as 16 Collingwood Terrcae, but in Gateshead.
 
 

David Percival Doak
 
It is known that David Percival Doak spent some time in the priosn near or at Leipzig, after his initial arrest in Leipzig in September 1914, as he shared a cell there with another soon to be Ruhlebenite, Jack Griggs.(Thanks to Jack's daughter Elizabeth Beasley for this information supplied in Jan 2006. Elizabeth can be contacted at airsporter@virgin.net)
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/25 concerning the refusal of the German authorities at Ruhleben to release David on health grounds. Further documents relate to an enquiry from Doak's father, J. A. Doak, of County Down, Ireland.
 
 

Leo Dobson
 
Leo Dobson is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dobson is recorded as having been born on December 18th 1887 in Borgerhout, Belgium, and is described as having been a dock worker prior to his internment. His home address was 109 Deurne Street, Antwerp. At the time the register was recorded, Dobson was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from Barrack 13 on November 27th 1916.
 
Dobson is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schoningsbaracke between March 14th 1918 and March 18th.
 
 

Arthur Dodd
 
Arthur Dodd was a British gold professional interned at Ruhleben. he was thanked by B. J. D. in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) for his recent musical perfomance at the camp:
"...Mr. Arthur Dodd, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Williams, Mr. Philips, Mr. Schlesinger and others, who, in solo and ensemble work, have given of their best."

The following additonal information was supplied by Hamburg based golf historian Christopher N. Meister in November 2007:

Arthur Dodd played his first round of golf at Hoylake (Royal Liverpool Golf Club) around 1890 and he first played at Wentorf-Reinbek near  Hamburg in 1903, two years after the course had been opened.

 

Arthur Dodd was a keen and very good amateur golfer, playing off a -2 Handicap as a member of Golf Club Wentorf-Reinbek in 1907 (Lawn Tennis & Golf, Nr. 25/1907). He was runner-up at the 1909 and 1910 German Amateur Closed Championship. In 1913 he got engaged to Mrs. Tiefenbacher, a German Club member. In 1914 Arthur Played off a -1 handicap which is why he is often referred to as a scratch player.

 

Arthur Dodd himself returned to Reinbek during the late 1950s and in 1961 he himself recalls his time at Ruhleben:

 

On the outbreak of war, on August 1st, 1914, the day my daughter Beatrice von Boch was born in our house opposite the golf links (at Wentorf-Reinbek), the English were interned in Ruhleben, but were extraordinary fortunate in having olf Graf Schwerin as the commander of the camp, and who spared no effort to make things as possible for the 2.000 internees, consisting of some 1.200 seamen, and the rest representing every conceivable kind of occupations, from professore,s famous musicians, jockeys, football-professionals, and las tbut not least golf-trainers in Germany.

 

Graf Schwerin pemitted the race course and fields in the middle to be used at regular times, for all kinds of sports, and the golfers were permitted from 8 to 10 a.m. We also had a space reserved at the top end where practising nets were put up, which could be used the whole day.

 

It was rather a humorous sight to see the golfing enthusisiasts, perhaps two hundred, rushing on th links, immediately the gates were opened, mostly with one old iron club, picked up somewhere, and driving off from a tee, extending for 150 yards. Everybody drove off more or less simultaneously, and I have still got a mark on my nose from the unintensional drive of some enthusiast.

 

We had an annual golf championship in the camp over 3 holes, one of which was won by  Frank (Fred this is!) Richardson, professional I think of the Bremen Golf Club. Another championship was won by Ernest Warburton of Kitzeberg/Kiel. How the occupation with golf (and other sports) helped to pass the years ony harly need say.

 

Arthur was allready 82 years old when he put down all this (60 Jahre Golf in Reinbek, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1961 and Hundert Jahre Wentorf-Reinbeker Golf Club 1901-2001, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 2001).

 

Arthur and his brother were both recorded as members of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". Their address was recorded as  3 Croxteth Road, Liverpool.

Thomas Dodd
 
Thomas Dodd was a merchant seaman from New Clee, Grimsby, a member of the the crew of the trawler St. Cutbert which was sunk by a German torpedo boat in August 1914. After his rescue and capture by the Germans, he was taken to Berlin for medical treatment, on the same day that the Germans were celebrating the fall of Verdun.
 
Dodd was released from Ruhleben in May 1916, with four other internees, the story being covered in the Scotsman newspaper of May 10th 1916 ("Back from Germany - British Subjects' Experiences", p.5). Dood was also noted as being one of nine men over the age of 55 released from Ruhleben at the beginning of May 1916, in the Times of May 9th 1916 ("British Prisoners from Germany", p.5, col.F).
 
 

W. Dodd

 

W. Dodd was photographed as a member of the Ruhleben Parcel Post team - see entry for Alfred Hazell King for the photo.

 

 

Walter E. Dodd

 

Arthur Dodd's brother was also a keen amateur golfer and member of the Golf Cub Wentorf-Reinbek east of Hamburg. Though not as talented as his brother, Walter was also a member at Wentorf-Reinbek at least as early as 1909, when played off a respectable -10 handicap (Lawn Tennis & Golf, Nr. 29/1909).

 

Both Dodd brothers were interned at Ruhleben as noted in Lawn Tennis & Golf, Nr. 27and28/1914. many thanks to Hamburg based golf historian Christopher N. Meister for the above.

 

Walter and his broher Arthur were both recorded as members of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". Their address was recorded as 3 Croxteth Road, Liverpool.

 

 

M. Doff

 

M. Doff was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 11 Hartington Road, C.-on-M., M/c.

 

 

Andrew J. Dolphin
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/69 reagrding Ruhleben conditions, including an interview with Andrew J. Dolphin, recently repatriated from the camp.
 
The Times of January 20th 1915 (page 4, col. A) tells us that a postcard sent to the paper and signed by Ruhleben inmates John W. Lintner, A. J. Dolphin, R. L. Nunn, Wm., Stern, E. Williams and W. S. Cohn wished for a "happy Christmas and a brighter New Year".
 
Dolphin was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 39 Cransley Gardens, Muswell Hill, London.
 
 
G. H. Doncaster
 
G. H. Doncaster is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Doncaster was a merchant seaman on board the S. S. Hull, and interned in Barrack 3.
 
 
C. D. Donnelly
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, C. D. Donnelly was noted as being from 43 Bedford Lane, Rock Ferry, Cheshire, and as having been born in Liverpool in 1882. He was arrested in Bremen on 10 OCT 1914, where had worked as a cotton administrator. After a brief period held in Bremen, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
 

E. J. Donovan
 
E. J. Donovan, of Hull, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
Percy Dootson
 
Percy Dootson was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Oak Dene, Shrewsbury Road, Bolton.
 
 
N. Douglas
 
N. Douglas Moller is noted as having been in the Teahouse Barrack's Box 9 on a letter dated 22 DEC 1917, on which he was noted as the sender, which is held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 
John B. Douglas
 
John B. Douglas was second engineer on the 'Capricornus' and at the time of his internment was noted as being of 63 St. Helen's Road, Grimsby. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Douglas was interned within Barrack 9. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

Dr. Arthur H. Douthwaite FRCP
 
Dr. Arthur H. Douthwaite, once the consulting physician emeritus at Guy's Hospital, was once an inmate at Ruhleben, as noted in his obituary in The Times of September 26th 1974 ("Dr. Arthur H. Douthwaite", p. 16, col. F). He wa sborn in 1896 and interned in the camp for the duration of the war.
 
 

Downing
 
Downing was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 
Thomas Drewitt
 
Thomas Drewitt was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Drewitt was interned within Barrack 7. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 
A. Dring
 
A. Dring was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 40 Milner Street, Whitworth, Rochdale.
 
 
Arthur Droege
 
The following contribution was made by Mark Rigg in June 2008, for which I am extremely grateful.
I am presently working on a WW1 diary of a great aunt of mine whose husband, Arthur Droege, was imprisoned there. They were immensely wealthy and owned an estate in Woltershausen and three more properties. He was born of an English mother and German father hence was considered a possible threat to the Fatherland and interred in the early November of 1914.
 
Aunt Annie, English, refused to leave Germany without him and the diary tells of her life in Hildesheim. She had to report twice daily to the police station and was not allowed to visit the camp, so I have no information to pass on regarding the prison.
Mark has also provided me with an image of a mirror that Arthur made when interned. It is inscribed with the letters EW, for Esther Whittaker, Arthur's sister in law and Mark's own grandmother, and depicts a view of Ruhleben on its back: 

 
 
William Huntley Drummond, the Earl of Perth
 
The Earl of Perth was recorded as an inmate in Ruhleben by Francis Gribble, in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook".
"...our most brilliant chess-player, if a player of my own poor capacity may presume to judge, was the Earl of Perth, who had long settled at Munch."
In the Scotsman newspaper of September 22nd 1917, a brief biography of the earl is noted ("Prisoners of War", p.10):
The Earl of Perth, late Captain, Black Watch (stated to be a prisoner at Ruhleben), succeeded his father in 1893 as 11th Viscount Strathallan, and his kinsman as 15th Earl of Perth in 1902. He was born on 5th August 1871, the only son of the first marraige of the late Viscount Strathallan, with Ellen (d. 1873), daughter of Mr Cuthbert Thornhill, Indian Civil Service. Lord Perth is unmarried. His heir presumptive is his half-brother (eldest son of the Viscountess Strathallan, Margaret, daughter of the late William Smythe of Methven, Perthshire), the Hon. Sir (James) Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., Foreign Office (from 1912 to 1915 Private Secretary to Mr Asquith), whose wife is the younger daughter of the late Lord Herries, and the sister of the present Baroness Herries (Ducess of Norfolk). Sir Eric has a son, born in 1907. The Earldom of Perth was created in 1605; the oldest title being Lord Drummond, created in 1468, the year of the accession of James IV., who was privately married to Margaret Drummond (d.1501), a daughter of the 1st Lord Drummond.

Drummond was reported as having been released from Ruhleben in the Times of August 26th 1918 ("Prisoners from Ruhleben", p.5, col. E). Described as Lord Perth, the article describes how he was resident in Munich prior to the war and interned within a fortress at the beginning of the war, before spending the next four years at Ruhleben.

 

Percy R. Drury
 
Percy R. Drury was the recipient of a postcard dated December 26th 1915. he was addressed as Herr Direktor Percy R. Drury, Englanderlager, Ruhleben-Spandau, Baracke No.1. The card was put up for sale on eBay in March 2007.
 
 

H. F. Duckworth
 
H. F. Duckworth, of Lancaster, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

James Dudgeon
 
James Dudgeon, of Dundee, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
From Marcus Bateman's site, we learn that Dudgeon was first mate on the 'May Scott' and at the time of his internment was noted as being of 174 Lochue Road, Dundee. He was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. Dudgeon was interned within Barrack 1.
 
 

Dugdale
 
Dugdale was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the winning Cameron's XI side against Brearley's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to the Cameron team.
 
 

John Raymond Dugdale
 
John Raymond Dugdale is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dugdale is recorded as having been born on July 9th 1894 in Luddendenfoot, Yorkshire, and is described as having been a student prior to his internment. His home address was Carrfield, Luddenden, Yorkshire. At the time the register was recorded, Dugdale was noted as staying in box 24.
 
Dugdale is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between June 16th 1918 and June 18th, and again between June 19th and July 15th.
 
Dugdale was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded here as University Union, Manchester.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Dugdale is noted as being from Luddendeen, S.O., and as born in Luddendeenfoot in 1894. He was a student in Lambrecht, and was arrested on 29 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Neustadt, Germersheim and Berlin, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 

Hans Augustus Dumont
 
Hans Augustus Dumont is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Dumont is recorded as having been born on March 3rd 1894 in London, and is described as having been a correspondent prior to his internment. His home address was c/o Miss B. Down, 13 Upstall Street, London, S. E.  At the time the register was recorded, Dumont was noted as staying in box 3, and is later noted as having been given indefinite leave on June 11th 1918.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Dumont is noted as being from 13 Upstall Street, Camberwell, and as having been born in Clapton Town in 1894. He worked as a correspondent in Cologne, where he was arrested on 5 SEP 1914. After a brief period held in Cologne he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
Dumont was also noted as an internee in Barrack 5, Box 3, on a postcard he sent to a Mr. L. Vandry in Coronado, California, USA, and reproduced in Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History Study of...The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914-1918". The card was diverted to the attention of Frank H. Buckles in Vacaville, after being stamped in Coronado at 7.00am on November 2nd 1917.
 
 
John Duncan
 
J. Duncan was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 28 Wellbrow Road, Walton, Liverpool.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Duncan's address is confirmed, and he is noted as having been born in Liverpool in 1877. He was a marine engineer, arrested in Hamburg on 4 AUG 1914, and after a brief imprisonment on the hulks, was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Matthew Duncan
 
Matthew Duncan was one of four gentlemen to have sent the Provost of Leith a postcard from Ruhleben in December 1914, as recorded in the Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.6). The other signatories were D. G. Munro, R. H. A. Mackie and Alexander T. Smith.
 
 

Cecil Duncan-Jones
 
Cecil Duncan-Jones was noted as an inmate at Ruhleben by Francis Gribble, in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook".
"...the men of light and leading in religious matters were Professor Delmer, of Berlin, Mr. Cecil Duncan Jones, the novelist, and my own fellow townsman, Mr. Bossum, of Barnstaple, who had been living in Germany as a teacher of languages. Mr. Duncan Jones, it may be added, took no less interest in dramatic than in devotional affairs, and was a perfect embodiment of a church and stage guild..."
In the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine, Duncan-Jones is listed as having produced and directed Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" through the Ruhleben Theatrical Society.
 
Many thanks to Cecil's great nephew Richard Duncan-Jones, for contacting me in June 2007, and supplying the following additional information:
He (Cecil) made a strong mark in the camp, as drama producer, lecturer and president of the YMCA. Although only in his thirties, he had been visiting Germany for his health in 1914, and the hardships of the camp hit him pretty badly, leading to more than one spell in the Lazarette. Sadly he died within weeks of coming home, and a Committee of ex-prisoners was set up to contribute and collect funds to provide him with a headstone, and some other memorial. They collected more than £200 by these efforts, which paid for the headstone, and for a very handsome alabaster statuette of St Christopher which they deposited in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
NB: the statuette is still on display at the museum to this day.
 
 

L. M. Dutoit
 
L. M. Dutoit, of London, was one of fifteen men released from Ruhleben who arrived in neutral Holland on June 7th 1916, as noted in the Times of June 8th 1916 ("War Weariness in Germany", p.7, col.C).
 
 

Edwin Dutton
 
Edwin Dutton, originally from Newcastle, was noted in an article in the Scotsman newspaper entitled "Football Among War Prisoners in Germany" (p.7) as having played outside left for the winning Tottenham Hotspur side at a football tournament held in Ruhleben in November 1914. The story is also covered in The Times of April 20th 1915 (p.5, col. B).
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Dutton was resident at Blucher Strasses 42, Berlin, was born Berlin 8 APR 1890, was a sports outfitter, was arrested in Berlin on 6 NOV 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
Dutton is further noted in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.38) as being involved in one of the camp's more memorable cricket matches:
No match has created the same amount of interest in Ruhleben as that between Masterman's XI v. "The Next" XVI. Spice was added to this contest of the best 27 cricketers in the Camp, by the arranging of a "Sweepstake", by McPherson of 9, in which practically every man in the Lager took a sporting chance in this original idea. Each ticket held a combination of three players and the ticket bearing the names of the three highest scorers was the winner of the prize. This fell to the fortunate holder of the Masterman 91, Steadman 60, (not out) and Mounsey 26. In this match Dutton, for "The Rest" bowled brilliantly and took 4 for 25.
A photo of Dutton at Ruhleben can be viewed online at Steve Bloomer's Farewell Match.
 
 
S. V. Dutton
 
S. V. Dutton was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 261 Upper Dawlish Road, Selly Oak, Birmingham.
 
 

H. W. Dye
 
H. W. Dye was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England. Dye, a jockey, described how there were still twelve other jockeys held in the camp after his release, one of whom was named Freddy Lane.
 
 

J. W. Dyson
 
J. W. Dyson was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

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