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Prisoners
K - L
 

In many cases, prisoners are referred to by surname only in the source material, making it difficult to know exactly who the individual may have been. This will have led to some duplication in the lists. Check for an individual under their full name, but also under the surname as well.
 
If you can link any of these anonymous surnames to listings with a full name, please contact me so that I can amend the entry.
 

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K
 
 
William Kallis
 
William Kallis was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

Albert William Valentine Kamps
 
Albert Kamps, born in 1887 in the east end of London, was one of three brothers interned in Ruhleben, who went on to establish the Ruhleben Express Delivery service. In Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History Study of... The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914-1918", the following describes the set up of the postal service:
Mr. Albert Kamps drafted a plan in late Spring of 1915 for the establishment of an internal post office. (Whether or not Mr. Kamps was a philatelist is unknown). The proposal was approved by the authorities and Mr. Powell was sent to Berlin (under guard) to buy the supplies. Mr. Kamps provided for twenty-five post-boxes to be placed in various parts of the camp. Prisoners who were poor or who had little talent to offer the general camp life were paid to deliver mail, empty boxes, and bring mail to and from the central office. In addition to an internal Post Office, Mr. Kamps was charged with the responsibility of distributing and collecting extrenal mail. Such mail was collected twice daily and three times on Sunday for posting and incoming mail was distributed at 3.pm daily...
 
...Mr. Kamps was aided in running the R.X.D. by his two brothers (their names are not known). One was in charge of printing, the other of postal services, leaving Albert to handle administrative affairs.
Unfortunately, the initial postal service did not last long. Kamps had corresponded with a Berlin stamp collector, K. Hobrecker, who published one of their letters in a local paper, the Berline Briefmarken-Zeitung, causing absolute outrage amongst the Berlin Philatelic Club. Along with other interested parties they formed a commission which made a series of formal complaints, not least of which was the fact that it had been illegal since April 1st 1900 to have any private postal services in Germany. The military were soon forced to act:
On April 3, 1916, just 9 months after it opened, the R.X.D. was shut down. Mr. Kamps and his two brothers were tried by a military court and sentenced to an unprecedented 3 weeks in the "bird cage", a fenced-in wire enclosure for solitary confinement.
 
The entire stock of stamps and stationery was empounded and presumably destroyed.
Albert's nephew, Dennis Camps, contacted me in June 2007 and kindly shared some additional information regarding the internment of his father, Henry Kamps, and his two uncles. Whilst Albert was certainly imprisoned in 1916, Dennis is not aware that his father and uncle Wilhelm were, and so believes that the above account is in error in that regard. During the war, Denns also revealed that the three brothers shared Box 4 in Barrack 7, and after the war, Albert worked as a commercial traveller and remained a keen stamp collector.
 
Albert is also noted on correspondence held by Dr Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria, dated 20 JUL 1915, as having been in Barrack 7 Box 4 (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 


Christmas card from Albert and Wilhelm Kamps, 1914

 
 
Henry Joseph Kamps
 
Henry Joseph Kamps, born in 1898, was brother to Alfred and Wilhelm Kamps, and was in charge of printing stationery as part of the Ruhleben Express Delivery.
 
Prior to the war, Henry had been training as an apprentice gold and silversmith in Germany. With the outbreak of hostilities, he reported to the police alongside other British citizens who had been ordered to do so, but was told by an officer that he was too young to be interned. He was instructed to go home, spend Christmas with his mother and sisters, and report back again in the new years - which is exactly what he did.
 
In the camp, Henry resided in Box 4 barrack 7 with his two brothers. His son Dennis, who contacted me in June 2007, recounted a humourous tale concerning his father's time in the camp. On one occasion, a German official was taking down details of various prisoners' details, such as name, address etc. When it came to Henry, he asked for his religion, to which Henry replied "Jiddischkatholisch". The official started to write it down, until the point when he realised that he was being wound up by Henry with the name of a religion that did not exist. The prisoners found the wind up hilarious, but the official did not! 
 
Thanks to Dennis for his help.
 

Wilhelm Leonard Kamps
 
Wilhelm Leonard Kamps, born in the east end of London in 1890, was a clockmaker by trade prior to the war, working in Germany, to where his family had moved in 1902. He was the brother of Alfred and Henry Kamps, with whom he shared Box 4 Barrack 7 for the duration of the war, and was in charge of postal services in the Ruhleben Express Delivery.
 
Wilhelm was noted as being in the Lazarett Room 2 on an envelope dated 23 MAR 1916, as held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber). It appears that he was ill for some time, as in September 1916 he was recuperating at Weiller's Sanitorium in Berlin, with a postcard addressed to him there dated September 14th today in the possession of his nephew, Dennis Camps.
 
On April 19th 1917 Wilhelm was given a pass to work in Coblenz, according to Denis 'on the understanding that he would behave himself!'. He later returned to the camp. The pass notes that he could speak both English and German (see below).
 
Thanks to Dennis for the above information.
 


Wilhelm Kamps' work pass to Coblenz in April 1917

 
 
Kampwai
 
Kampwai was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
Henry Kane
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Henry Kane was noted as being from 2 Hardwich Street, South Shields, and as having been born in South Shields in 1867. He worked as a seaman and was arrested in Hamburg on 1 AUG 1914, and after being imprisoned on hulks was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7. 
 
 
John Kane
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, John Kane was noted as being from 26 Hardwich Street, South Shields, and as having been born in South Shields in 1890. He worked as a seaman and was arrested in Hamburg on 1 AUG 1914, and after being imprisoned on hulks was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.  
 
 

Norman G. Kapp

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Norman G. Kapp is noted as being a member of the Arts and Science Union in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.20). He is also listed under a mock notice:
DRAMATIC NOTICE:
Norman G. Kapp, resting, Box 16, Bar 3.
In the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.36), Kapp is noted as having given a lecture to the Arts and Science Union on "Drama as a Work of Art". He is further noted as having had Messrs Merritt and P. Maurice render several dramatic scenes from the play "Major Barbara" for the lecture, and of having given readings in a lecture by Pender entitled "The New Poetry" (p.36).
 
In the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine, Kapp was sketched in his part of Jacques in the camp's production of "As You Like It". He is also listed as being about to give a nautical lecture to the camp school entitled "Aerial Transport" (p.15).
 
 

Herbert Kastner
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Herbert Kastner was noted as being from 40 Elm Grove Road, London, and as having been born in London in 1891. He worked as a clerk and was arrested in Hamburg on 6 NOV 1914. After a brief spell imprisoned on the hulks in Hamburg, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 8.
 
Kastner worked in the camp's kitchens. In the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p.11), Kastner was sketched by C. M. Horsfall, and described as working in the "near kitchen".
 
In April 1917, Kastner acted as the goakeeper for the barrack football team in the Ruhleben Football Association Cup Final. The sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) carried a report on the match, noting Kastner's involvement:

herbertkastnerrcm.jpg

"The weather was perfect, when Hartly, the referee, started the game before a 'gate' of more than 3000 spectators. Bar.8 commenced as though they were going to win comfortably. For the first 20 minutes there was only one team in it, and that was 8. Kastner in goal for 8 only had one kick during this period; in fact 8 was so superior that the match promised to be uninteresting in consequence. Only the magnificent defence of the elder Wright and Petrie saved 20. In the last fifteen minutes of the first half 20 began to havea little more of the game,but 8's defence was equal to all demands, and half time came with no goals scored. On the re-start 20 played like a different team, and Kastner had almost as much work as Petrie had had in the first half. It seemed certain that time would come without a score, when, five minutes from the close (we play 35 minutes each way), a mistake by 8's defence enabled Mills to score at close range for 20. A wild cheer from the specatators greeted this success, because 8 were generally expected to win, and a British crowd dearly loves to see a weaker side conquer. However, the game was not finished, for two minutes before time Nappin got through for 8 and equalised. Again there was a mighty cheer as a tribute to 8 for pulling off what appeared to be a forlorn hope, with a goal against them and so little to go. Extra time, ten minutes each way, was ordered; but the players of the both teams had expended their strength and energy in the ordinary portion of the game, and they could only just last the time out without either side adding to the score."
There was a replay three days later, with Barrack 20 winning, 3-0!
 
 
Ludwig Katt
 
Ludwig Katt was recorded as being in Barrack 14 Box 19 on an RXD distribution card on 17 MAR 1916, a photocopy of which is now held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber). 
 
 

Kauffman
 
The fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.4) mentions that the editor has received an "at home" card from Mr. Kauffman.
 
 
George E. Kay
 
In January 2008, philatelist Andrew Brooks kindly contacted me to say that he has in his possession an envelope for a letter sent by George E. kay, noted as an internee in Barrack 3 at Ruhleben.
 
 

C. Kean
 
C. Kean, of Dublin, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

C. Kean
 
C. Kean, of London, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

A. Keane
 
A. Keane was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Arthur H. J. Keane
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/73 regarding Arthur H. J. Keane, a British subject interned at Ruhleben. The documents include the transmission of his will, an order for his attorneys and a letter to his wife, Mrs Rosalie B. C. Keane of South Hampstead, and the payment of rent on his premises leased in Chemnitz, as well as storage fees for the furniture.
 
 

M. Kearley
 
M. Kearley was noted in The Times of November 9th 1931 as being one of the former inmates of Ruhleben present at a dinner meeting held in November 1931 by the Ruhleben Association, which was held to discuss an appeal to the House of Lords for the group's claims for compensation ("Reunion of Ex-Ruhleben Prisoners", p.17, col.D).
 
 
Harold Kearne
 
Harold Kearne was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 7. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
Kearne was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Fitgerstrasse 36, Bremen. 
 
 

Walter Tree Keeble
 
Walter Tree Keeble is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Keeble is recorded as having been born on March 30th 1876 in London, and is described as having been a secretary prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 27 fellows Road, South Hampstead, N.W. At the time the register was recorded, Keeble was noted as staying in box 14. he is further noted as having departed for Holland on February 21st 1918.
 
 

James Frederick Keel
 
James Frederick Keel was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp as having been voted as the chair of the committee of the newly formed Ruhleben Music Society, at a meeting on Thursday June 15th, attended by some 36 musicians in the camp (p.11 & p.41). 
 
The Scotsman newspaper of July 5th 1916 (p.2) carried a piece about the forthcoming appearance of the nineteenth edition of the Journal of the Folk-Song Society, normally contributred to by Keel, its honorary secretary. With his absence in Ruhleben, his wife had taken up his duties with regard to the society.
 
In the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.26), Keel is noted as having sung English, Irish and French folk songs at a recent concert, and of having sung Vaughn William's "Songs of Travel" and English folk songs on a concert on February 20th 1916. 
 
In the Musical Notes section of the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.25), Keel is listed as to be soon giving a recital to the camp.
 
A further example of Keel's musical contribution to life in the camp was recorded in the Musical Notes section of the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917):
"Mr. Frederick Keel and Mr. F. W. Hughesdon have given genuine pleasure by their singing, of particular interest being Mr. Keel's performance of some beautiful Folk-Tunes from Normandy and Brittany, arranged with admirable ingenuity and perfect taste by MM. Edouard Moulle and Bourgault-Ducoudraye."
Keel was also recorded in The Times as being about to give a concert at the Ruhleben Exhibition on Friday, February 7th, with fellow former Ruhleben musicians, all of whom had been professional musicians captured in Bayreuth. The article appeared on January 30th 1919 in the Times ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.11, col. F).
 
Keel was released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 7. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
It may be that this was the F. Keel who was later noted in The Times of November 9th 1931 as being one of the former inmates of Ruhleben present at a dinner meeting held in November 1931 by the Ruhleben Association, which was held to discuss an appeal to the House of Lords for the group's claims for compensation ("Reunion of Ex-Ruhleben Prisoners", p.17, col.D).
 
Keel's obituary was carried in The Times of August 16th 1954 ("Mr. J. Frederick Keel", p. 8, col. D).
 
 

K. T. Kees
 
K. T. Kees was an inmate in Barrack 11's Loft, as noted in a newspaper subscription receipt reproduced in Frank Bachenheimer's "A Postal History Study of... The Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp 1914-1918" (Fig. 23).
 
 

A. Eric Keith
 
A. Eric Keith was born in Germany of English parents, and as such, was interned as a prisoner at Ruhleben at the outbreak of the war.
 
Keith's internment and escape from Ruhleben was written up by him for issue 33 of the magazine "The Great War..I Was There!", published May 1939, in an article entitled "I Escaped From Ruhleben Through Bog and Swam Into Holland". In his article Keith explains that he had attempted to escape on three separate occasions. The first attempt was from Dr. Weiler's Sanitorium, an attempt where Keith believed that he had made it to Holland, but was unsuccessful in that a German followed him over the border and brought him back. After a spell in the Stadtvogtei in Berlin, he returned to the camp.
 
In the second attempt, Wallace Ellison accompanied him, but with Ellison being ill they had to ask for help from a farmhouse, which aroused suspicion and soon led to their arrest and return back to the Stadtvogtei for a term of solitary confinement.
 
The thrid attempt, on September 16th  1917, was successful. At the end of his article, Keith describes how he was contacted three weeks after arriving back in England by Ellison, who called him having also escaped himself through a different route.
 
A biographical side note in the article tells us that Keith was 30 years old when the war broke out and had been living at Neuss, a town on the Rhine, for over a year. After serving in the American Army he went into business in London, but died in November 1938.
 
Keith is also referred to in the autobiographical account of Frenchman Dr. Henri Beland, which can be viewed online at the Un Jours en Prison a Berlin website.
 
Beland confirms that Keith made an escape attempt from Ruhleben in 1915, which was unsuccessful, and saw him taken to Stadvogtei prison in Berlin, where he remained for many months. From here he made a second escape attempt, lasting ten days out in the open, before being recaptured and returned to the prison. In August 1917, after a newly drawn up aggreement between Germany and Britain over prisoners who had attempted to escape, Keith was finally returned to Ruhleben - from which he made a third, and this time successful escape attempt!
 
 
Kelly
 
Kelly was barber in the camp, as noted on a receipt dated 7 JAN 1916, a photocopy of which is held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

Angus McLeod Kelly
 
Angus McLeod Kelly is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Kelly is recorded as having been born on May 21st 1887 in Glasgow, and is described as having been a correspondent prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 416 Great Western Road, Glasgow. At the time the register was recorded, Kelly was noted as staying in box 18.
 
 
Arthur Kelly
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Arthur Kelly is noted as being from Victoria Road, Yapton, Sussex, and as having been born at Kings Lynn in 1896. He was a sea apprentice, and was arrested on 4 AUG 1914. After a brief imprisonment in Stralsund and Doberitz, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
It is likely that Arthur was the A. Kelly listed in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having made a model yacht, with his effort photographed for the publication as an example of camp craftsmanship.
 
 

Arthur Kemp
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/59 regarding enquiries about the nationality of Ruhleben inmate Arthur Kemp.
 
 

C. Kemp
 
C. Kemp is noted in issue six of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine as having satisfied the examiners at the London Matriculation Examination, held in the camp in December 1916.
 
 
Henry Kemp
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Henry Kemp is noted as being from London, where he was born in December 1891. He was a seaman, and was arrested in August 1914 in Hamburg, and after a brief imprisonment in the city was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
 

William Kemp
 
The National Archives hold documents from 1916 at FO383/208 regarding enquiries by Mr. D. Kemp about the possible release of his brother, William Kemp, from Ruhleben Camp, as part of a prisoner exchange scheme. There is also a statement by the Prisoners of War Department that no agreement had yet been reached on the implementation of the scheme. Further enquiries are made by D. Kemp about the health of William and confirmation that he had spent time in the sanatorium at Ruhleben Camp.
 
 

Kennedy
 
Kennedy was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (1915, p.22) as being a member of the Irish rugby team in a series of friendly internationals in the camp.
 
 

Kennedy
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding a request by Mr. S. M. Kennedy for advice on the best method of sending money to his brother in Ruhleben, as well as the provision of information on obtaining a better exchange rate from remittances sent through Messrs. Scheuleer and Sons of the Hague in Holland.
 
 

J. H. F. Kennedy
 
J. H. F. Kennedy was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
A. E. Kerl
 
A. E. Kerl is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Kerl was a merchant seaman on board the Coralie Horlock, and interned in Barrack 9, box 26.
 
 
W. D. Kerr
 
W. D. Kerr was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 2 Raglan Street, Garston, Liverpool.
 
 
Sidney John Kerrigan
 
Sidney John Kerrigan was a merchant seaman who worked as a donkeyman on the 'Longhirst', and at the time of his arrest was noted as being from 54 Whitehead Street, South Shields, According to his granddaughter Ann Reade, who contacted me in October 2007, he was in fact born Sidney John Curwin, but by 1902 was using the name Kerrigan, apparently something to do with a lost mariner's ticket. Many thanks to Ann for her help.
 
 
F. William Kerrison
 
F. William Kerrison is noted on Marcus Bateman's Index of British Fishermen and Merchant Seamen POWs as being from 199 Hampton Street, Grimsby. As a deckhand on board the 'Valiant', he is almost certainly a relative of William B. T. Kerrison, the boat's skipper, who was also interned.
 
 
William B. T. Kerrison
 
William B. T. Kerrison was the skipper on the 'Valiant', originally from 559 Heneage Road, Grimsby, and was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 3. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 

John Davidson Ketchum
 
John Davidson Ketchum was an internee at Ruhleben, arrested after studying music in Germany before the war. Ketchum's book "Ruhleben: A Prison Camp Society", first published by Oxford University Press in 1965, is by far the most detailed and analytical look at the whole of the Ruhleben phenomenon.
 
Ketchum is listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler). he appears to be the John Kitschum named in another undated document in FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was contemporaneous with the previous, compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. In this he was described as a 21 year old student who had been working in Berlin.
 
After the war, Ketchum took up the Chair of Psychology at Toronto University. He died on April 24th 1962. 
 
 
James Kewn
 
Many thanks to James Harry Allen for his guestbook entry in March 2007, identifying his grandfather James Kewn, engineer of the S.S. Torfrey, as an inmate at Ruhleben. Marcus Bateman's website on mewrchant seamen POWs furtehr tells us that Kewn was 37 at internment, with his address as Glenview Par Lane, Par. 
 
 

James Keys
 
Seaman James Keys was a Ruhleben inmate released from the camp in December 1915, who made his way back to Tilbury on board the merchant ship Mecklenburg, as noted in The Times of December 23rd 1915 (p.6, col.B). In the article, Keys described how they were stripped of excess woollen garmets before being released from the camp.
 
 
James Kincla
 
James Kincla was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 21 Emery Street, City Road, Walton, Liverpool.
 
 

Richard Frampton Kindersley
 
Richard Frampton Kindersley, of Eton public school, was noted in an article in the Scotsman newspaper entitled "Football Among War Prisoners in Germany", dated April 21st 1915 (p.7), as having played for the losing Oldham Athletic side in a competition final held in Ruhleben in November 1914. The story is also covered in The Times of April 20th 1915 (p.5, col. B). 
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Kindersley (Kinderslie) was resident at Eton College, Windsor, was born in Radley, Oxon, was an engineer arrested in Berlin on 6 NOV 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
Kindersley was also recorded as an inmate at Ruhleben by Francis Gribble, in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook".
We could have put a creditable boat on the river at either of the universities - stroked, perhaps, by Mr. Kindersley, son of the President of the O.U.B.C., who had himself rowed for Cambridge, or else by Mr. Tom Sullivan, once a champion sculler.
He was further noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.16) as having given a nautical lecture entitled "Irrigation in the Soudan".
 
And in the third issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (May 1916, p.32), Kindersley is listed as having appeared in the play "The Younger Generation".
 
A Kindersley was listed in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.45) as being a member of the Ruhleben Tennis Association.
 
After the war, details of Kindersley's marriage to Miss Elaine Belmont on August 9th 1920, at St. Michael's in Cornhill, were recorded in The Times of August 10th 1920. As well as noting that Kindersley was one of the interned at Ruhleben, it also states that his father had been a schoolmaster at Eton ("Marriages", p.13, col. B).
 
Kindersley was one of the internees photographed with the Ruhleben Parcel Post - see Alfred Hazell King's entry for the image.
 
 

Alfred Hazell King
 
The following information on Alfred Hazell King was supplied by his grandson William Maturin-Baird in September 2007, for which I am eternally grateful:
My great grandfather was a prisoner at Ruhleben from 1914-1918. His name was (Alfred) Hazell King. He was born in August 1896 in Winchester. He was an only child. Early in 1914, as an 18 year old scholar he was sent to Berlin to study languages at the 'Instutut Tilly', with a view to going to Cambridge university in 1915. He was interned at the outbreak of war. During his time at Ruhleben he learnt Russian and Italian through contact with inmates of those nationalities. He appears to have been assigned to 'Post Office duties' while there.
 
After release, at the age of 23, he went to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, studying Classical Arabic. After Cambridge he joined the Levant Consular Service and was first assigned to the British Consulate in Athens. Here he married Mary Eileen (nee Lowry) in April 1925. During his consular service he was assigned to many countries including Egypt, Morocco, Persia, Turkey, Hamburg  immediately after the 2nd World War, and finally to Buenos Aires where he died in 1956. His wife Mary (my grandmother) lived until 2002, and is survived by 3 children, 10 grandchildren and 23 (at the last count) great grandchildren.
 

Alfred Hazell King, fourth from right, back row

 
 
C. A. King

ckingasrosalind.jpg

C. A. King was noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.28) as having played the role of Rosalind in the play "As You Like It", produced by fellow inmates C. Duncan Jones and Leigh Henry. He was also sketched in the role for the same issue (p.11).
 
King was also thanked in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.37) for his contribution to the theatre during 1916.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Charles James King
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/65 regarding Charles James King, a British subject detained at Ruhleben, and a request that a telegram be sent to Mr. King informing him of the dangerous illness of his wife in Upper Tooting.
 
The Scotsman newspaper reported on March 9th 1916 that King had been released from the camp a couple of days earlier ("Released from Ruhleben", p.5).
 
In another article in the Scotsman, dated June 20th 1916, the American Ambassador to Berlin, James W. Gerard, refudiated claims made by King in a recent letter to the Morning Post. King had claimed the following:
I can vouch for the fact that from March 16, 1915, when I was interned, to March 7, 1916, when I was released, neither the American Ambassador nor any of his staff had been present at the Ruhleben kitchen during the serving of a meal.
Gerard went on in detail to list his various visits to the kitchens on four occasions ("Conditions at Ruhleben - Letter from the American Ambassador in Berlin", p.3).
 
 
 
Cyril F. E. King
 
Cyril F. E. King's signature was recorded by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth on March 15th 1916, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. He was interned in the loft of Barrack 10.
 
Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.
 
In December 2008 I was then contacted by Cyril's son Timothy, to whom I am indebted for the following short biography on his father:

Cyril King was born in Kent in 1896.  His father had been in the Indian Civil Service, who on retirement, had married a German girl from an aristocratic Bavarian family.  When war broke out in August 1914, Cyril was in Germany with his now widowed mother and his sisters.  He had been about to enter his final year at Winchester College, and would shortly have been of military age.  He was consequently interned at Ruhleben.  His mother and sisters were allowed to go to Switzerland, and eventually made it back to England.

In Ruhleben, he shared some sort of a horse-box with Jock Balfour and (before his repatriation) Timothy Eden.  Looking back on his Ruhleben experience, Cyril felt that on the whole the Germans treated them fairly and that probably  internment had saved his life.  An elder brother and many others among his Winchester contemporaries became the junior Army officers who led their men “over the top” in France and never came back.

Cyril King returned to England immediately the war ended, and in January 1919 went up to King’s College, Cambridge, to read Economics (somebody had suggested that having missed his last year at school and being rusty concerning school subjects, he would be at less of a disadvantage in a non-school subject.)  His supervisor was J.M. Keynes.  A “War Degree” meant that he graduated in 1920, and he received a 2:1. 

He rejected Keynes’ encouragement to stay at Cambridge and try to become an academic economist.  Instead, he returned to Winchester College to fill in for an absent master of French and German, which he followed by studying at the Sorbonne for a few months in the summer of 1921.  He then went to Bradfield College, primarily to direct its triennial production of a Greek play in its Greek theatre--its 1922 production this was Antigone.  While at Bradfield he became interested in “progressive” education and cycled to Petersfield to see its most famous example, Bedales.  He decided that he wanted to teach there, and was on the Bedales staff from 1923 to December 1928.  

He then decided to the study psychology, something which at that time required, in addition to academic courses, three years of psychoanalysis.  He then worked for the London County Council as an educational psychologist.   When the Second War came, he and his wife, Joan, whom he had married in 1937, were about to have their second child.  They decided to leave London for her parents’ home in Ilkley, Yorks, where Cyril became involved in various sorts of war work, including the Home Guard.  In 1942, he returned to teach at Bedales, where he became Second Master in 1947.  He retired from Bedales in 1963.  He died in 1969.


 
Walter King
 
An account of Walter King's internment at Ruhleben is given in the Manchester Guardian of August 7th 1915 after his release. The article, entitled "Life at Ruhleben", includes the following on King, described as "a Southwark man":
Mr. King spent eight months at Ruhleben, having previously endured two months solidtary confinement as a suspected spy, a charge on which he was acquitted.
 
 

Eugen Rudolf Kinzer
 
Eugen Rudolf Kinzer is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Kinzer is recorded as having been born on October 10th 1873 in London, and is described as having been a tyre maker prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 29 Morrison Buildings, Commercial Road, E. At the time the register was recorded, Kinzer was noted as staying in loft B.
 
 
W. M. Kirkham
 
W. M. Kirkham was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as c/o Thorp and Ainsworth, Winchley Street, Preston.
 
 

Henry Kirkpatrick
 
Henry Kirkpatrick, from Dumfries, was an inmate at Ruhleben, who in 1915 was one of the first inmates to attempt an escape from the camp, which succeeded, but who was unfortunate to be recaptured thirty miles from the Dutch border.
 
In Wallace Ellison's memoirs outlining his own escape attempt, he describes his meeting with Kirkpatrick in a Berlin prison, two weeks after his Ruhleben escape:

"While in the prison yard one day for exercise, I met a Scotsman, Henry Kirkpatrick, originally from Dumfries, and chief engineer of the Union Cold Storage Co., Ltd. He had just arrived in prison after having made a very plucky escape from Rubleben a fortnight before. Although fifty-two years of age, he had been the first among four thousand men to attempt to escape from Ruhleben and after a very adventurous fourteen days' tramp had somehow or other become separated from his companion, who spoke perfect colloquial German. At this stage of his adventures he was only about thirty miles from the Dutch frontier, and the previous night had fainted from exhaustion in front of an inn in a small village. He recovered and pressed on, however, before any one saw him, but in passing through the outskirts of Cloppenburg the following morning he was overtaken by a gendarme on a bicycle and at once arrested.

"A lasting friendship grew up between us. Our cells were on the same level on two sides of a corner, and we would frequently whistle to each other, climb up behind the bars of our windows, and hold long surreptitious conversations condoling with each other about our poor empty stomachs, and through the iron bars discuss the details of his escape. I learned much from him of conditions in Berlin and Germany from an escaper's point of view.

"At the end of my five weeks' detention I bade farewell to Kirkpatrick."

- Wallace Ellison -

Kirkpatrick was noted in an article in the Scotsman newspaper of January 25th 1916 as being a prisoner of Ruhleben who had tried to escape, and who had ended up in a Berlin jail on one meal a day as a consequence. His case was being investigated by Mr. Gerard ("Complaints of Treatement at Ruhleben", p.5).
 
In June 1917, Kirkpatrick was listed in the Nautical Notes section of the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine as having recently given a "very practical and instructive lecture" on mechanical refrigeration.
 
 

James Kirwan
 
James Kirwan was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 
Lewis Kiseneyder
 
Lewis Kiseneyder was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 32 year old traveller who had been working in Spandau.
 
Simply listed as Kiseneyder in another document in FO 369/710, he is described as having been sent to Ruhleben on 9 SEP 1914. The information was originally compiled by the American Embassy in Berlin.
 
 
Kissinger
 
Kissinger is listed as being at Ruhleben in a Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe. Beside his typed name is written the following: has been arrested as a thief (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 

Kitchen
 
Kitchen was noted in the football section of the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as being a member of Barrack 3.
 
 

Kitchener
 
Mr. Kitchener was an inmate at Ruhleben, as noted by Francis Gribble in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook".
"They marched us down on to the racecourse for the purpose (roll call), and there sorted us alphabetically - all the A's together, all the B's together, &c. It was a tedious business, lasting for several hours, and only enlivened by the merriment which the sound of some of the names provoked - such names as those of Mr. Kitchener, who was a tailor, and Mr. Edward Grey, of whom I know nothing except that he was not a Secretary of State."
 
Walter Kitching
 
W. Kitching is noted on a list of prisoners of war on a document entitled 'Men in Englander Lager, Ruhleben', held by Hull Local Studies Library (provisional catalogue entry: Hohenrein Collection F 10b), supplied by senior local studies librarian David Alexander Smith in July 2008, for which I am grateful. The document notes that Kitching was a merchant seaman on board the Glenearn, and interned in Barrack 3, loft.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Kitching was from 66 Alliance Avenue, Hull, and born in Hull in 1891. He was a shipwright arrested in Hamburg on 16 OCT 1914. After a spell on the hulks he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

George Kite
 
George Kite is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Kite is recorded as having been born on December 10th 1876 in Haine-St.Pierre, Belgium, and is described as having been an engineer prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Rue d' Enhaive, Jambes lez Namur. At the time the register was recorded, Kite was noted as staying in loft A, having been placed there after his arrival from Namur on May 7th 1915.
 
Kite is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between June 12th 1918 and June 16th, and again between July 7th and July 10th.
 
 

Kitson
 
Kitson is noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (June 1915, p.14) as having played for the Rest of Ruhleben team against the Varsities, in the Ruhleben Cricket League.
 
Kitson was also noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing A side in a second division match between the A team and the B team on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 

T. Klein
 
T. Klein was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

L. H. W. Klingender
 
L. H. W. Klingender was appointed in March 1915 by Powell, the camp captain, to be vice chair of the camp's Education Department, as recorded in the Scotsman on 29/3/1915 (p.8) and the Times on 29/3/1915 ("More and Better Food at Ruhleben" p.4 col A). The department's remit was to control and administer the schools, classes, lectures, library and newspapers.
 
Klingender's presence was also noted by Francis Gribble in his essay entitled "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook".
"At the head of it (university) was the Science and Arts Union, organised by Mr. Hattfield, a distinguished chemist, with whom were associated, among others, Professor Delmer, whom I have already mentioned, Mr. Klingender, the Curator of the Gosling Museum, and my friend Mr. Prichard - a society to which our own Education Office has been sending a large supply of education books."
 
W. Knoop
 
W. Knoop was photographed as a part of the Ruhleben Parcel Post - see Alfred Hazell King's entry for the image.
 
 
John Knowles
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, John Knowles is noted as being from 3 Brooklyn Street, Bolton, and as having been born in Bolton in 1887. He worked as a fitter in Crefeld, and was arrested on 4 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Wesel, Sennelager and Crefeld, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
Knowles also was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was again recorded as 3 Brooklyn Street, Boston.
 
 

Koams
 
Koams was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
Eric Koch
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Eric Koch is noted as being from 18 Craven Hill Gardens, London W, and as having been born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA in 1883. He was an engineer in Neuss, where he was arrested on 27 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Neuss and Cologne, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 

R. J. Kottich
 
The National Archives hold documents from 1915 at FO383/66 regarding university students interned in Ruhleben, and South African students, including a list of individuals (in docket no. 161555), and details of an individual case, that of Mr. R. J. Kottich, a government scholar in the camp.
 
 

Adolph Henry Gerard Kotz
 
Adolph Henry Gerard Kotz is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Kotz is recorded as having been born on February 10th 1898 in London, and is described as having been a carpenter prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 19 Stanhope Gardens, Harringay, London, N. At the time the register was recorded, Kotz was noted as staying in loft A, having arrived there on February 19th 1915. His brother John was also interned in the same barrack.
 
 
John George Martin Kotz
 
John George Martin Kotz is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Kotz is recorded as having been born on May 18th 1896 in London, and is described as having been a cabinet maker prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 19 Stanhope Gardens, Harringay, London, N. At the time the register was recorded, Kotz was noted as staying in box 7. His brother Adolph was also interned in the same barrack.
 
Between November 17th and November 25th, M. Kotz from Barrack 5 spent some time in the camp's Schonungsbaracke - this is presumably John, who must have gone by his middle name of Martin?
 
  

Kowski
 
Kowski was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
Fred Krachmer
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Fred Krachmer is noted as being from 48 Palinen Strasse, Kreuznach, and as having been born in London on 2 MAR 1887. He was a mechanical engineer and was arrested in Kreuznach on 6 NOV 1914. After a brief period held in Kreuznach Prison, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 4.
 
 

Sydney Eric Kraul
 
Sydney Eric Kraul is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Kraul is recorded as having been born on January 3rd 1890 in Newcastle-on-Tyne, and is described as having been a merchant prior to his internment. His home address was listed as c/o W. Simpson Ltd, North John Street, Liverpool. At the time the register was recorded, Kraul was noted as staying in loft A, having transferred there from the Tea House on April 19th 1915.
 
 
 

E. Krauss
 
E. Krauss was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Frank Kremnitz
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding Frank Kremnitz, a naturalised British subject, and concerning arrangements for his release from Ruhleben and subsequent repatriation back to England.
 
Frank Kremnitz was thanked for his illustrations for the Ruhleben Camp Magazine by its editor, C. G. Pemberton, in the fifth issue (Christmas 1916, p.62).
 
Kremnitz, of London, was one of fifteen men released from Ruhleben who arrived in neutral Holland on June 7th 1916, as noted in the Times of June 8th 1916 ("War Weariness in Germany", p.7, col.C).
 
It is believed that Harry and Frank Kremnitz, both interned at the camp, were related, as a postcard from H. & F. Kremnitz was sent to Sir Robert Oates, at 5 Langside Avenue, London, on December 17th, 1915. The card, depicted a painting of Ruhleben with the words "Xmas 1915, Ruhleben Bei Spandau, with Heartiest Xmas and New Year's Wishes, From Two Civil Prisoners of War", and the back tells us that both Kremnitz boys were staying in the Barrack 11 loft. The card was discovered for sale on E-Bay in March 2006.
 
Kremnitz's portrait was also recorded in 1915 by fellow internee Christopher Cornforth, in an autograph book now held at the Imperial War Museum. (Many thanks to Christopher's granddaughter Christine Pierce who provided this information in December 2007.)
 
 
Harry Kremnitz
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding a decision by the German authorities not to allow the release of Harry Kremnitz, as he was judged capable of rendering military service.
 
It is believed that Harry and Frank Kremnitz, both interned at the camp, were related, as a postcard from H. & F. Kremnitz was sent to Sir Robert Oates, at 5 Langside Avenue, London, on December 17th, 1915. The card, depicted a painting of Ruhleben with the words "Xmas 1915, Ruhleben Bei Spandau, with Heartiest Xmas and New Year's Wishes, From Two Civil Prisoners of War", and the back tells us that both Kremnitz boys were staying in the Barrack 11 loft. The card was discovered for sale on E-Bay in March 2006.
 
 
Ernst Krueger
 
From a photo of a National Archives file from collection MT9, supplied by Marcus Bateman in March 2007, it is known that on December 2nd 1916, Ernst Krueger, of the Tea House Barrack, was granted leave to visit Kottbus until December 6th (Camp Changes, Supplement 10). Many thanks to Marcus.
 
 

Wilhelm Kustner
 
Wilhelm Kustner is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Kustner is recorded as having been born on February 16th 1873 in Rublingen, Wurth, and is described as having been a pork butcher prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 104 Church Street, Eccles. At the time the register was recorded, Kustner was noted as staying in loft B, and is further noted as having left for England on August 23rd 1918.
 
 

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L
 
 
Walter Lacey
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 regarding Walter Lacey, specifically a request from his wife, a refugee in Frankfurt. Further documents are held at FO383/26 concerning arrangements for a medical examination of Walter, and an enquiry from his wife, Miss Mary Lacey in Northallerton.
 
 
David C. Laird
 
David C. Laird was the sender of a Ruhleben Christmas postcard to Mrs Nellie Tuiffin, 72 High Street, Harehill, Essex at Christmas 1917. The card was later put up for sale on eBay in June 2006.
 
 

Lakeld
 
Lakeld was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

Lamb
 
Lamb was noted in the second issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (April 1916, p. 29) as having been a member of a football team led by John Cameron, which defeated an opposing side led by Steve Bloomer on March 3rd 1916.
 
Lamb was also noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing Brearley's XI side against Cameron's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to the Cameron team. The article also tells us that Hill was a member of Barrack 10.
 
 

James Lawson Lamb
 
The National Archives in London hold documents at FO383/71 from 1915 concerning James Lawson Lamb, formerly a resident in Hamburg, Germany, and now interned at Ruhleben. The documents concern an enquiry from his brother, George Lamb of Newcastle-on-Tyne, regarding relief payments for his wife (Mrs. Mary Helen Lamb, nee Findlay) and his family in England, with subsequent arrangements for payment of dividends to Mrs. Lamb. (This may be the same Lamb as noted above, but unable to corrobaortae that as yet.)
 
 

Ben Lambert
 
Ben Lambert was recorded in the Times of July 8th 1916 ("Back from Germany", p.7, col.A) as arriving at Gravesend on July 7th 1916, having been released from Ruhleben. He is described as having been a sailor of Grimsby, aged 57, who had been captured in April 1915 when his fishing boat was torpedoed and subsequently taken to Wilhelmshaven.
 
 
 

Stanley Harrison Lambert

stanleylambertrcm.jpg

The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/62 regarding Stanley Harrison Lambert, imprisoned in Ruhleben. They include a request for a copy of his birth certificate, discussion of his possible exchange as a consular official, and enquiries and representations from his brother, F. H. Lambert of Cardiff, and his wife, Mrs. Lambert, of West Kensington, London.
 
In his essay "Leaves From a Ruhleben Notebook", Francis Gribble recorded the presence of Stanley Lambert:
"Some of our number happily found their sphere of usefulness in helping these men who needed help so badly. In particular, my friend Mr. Stanley Lambert, now the Captain of the Schonungs Baracke, or Barrack for Individulas and Convalescents, did so. Some day, I hope, it will be my privilege to devote a special article to a full record of the work which Mr. Lambert hads been doing at Ruhleben; but it will be better to wait for that until the work is finished. Here and now it will be enough to set down that, for many months, Mr. Lambert has been devoting practically the whole of his time and thoughts to the care and protection of those of the interned who, through illness or weakness of constitution, are least fit to withstand the inevitable hardships of camp life, acting, of course, in collaboration with the camp doctor, but also showing himself capable of energetic initiative, and serving his country in a way which has made his name one to conjure with among those whom he has been looking after. If any reader wants further testimony, let him ask any one of the sailors who have recently been returned to England as invalids unfit for further detention."
The Times of January 24th 1916 carried an advertisement for Plasmon Oats. The advert, entitled "Prisoners Ill in Germany", contained the following letter written by Fred W. Hanson and Stanley Lambert on September 8th 1915:
Englanderlager, Ruhleben,
8th September, 1915.
 
Dear Sir,
 
We beg to thank you in the name of this camp for the sixty-seven cases of Prisoners' Comforts which you so generously sent us through the Prisoners of War Help Committee. We found the contents most acceptable, especially the Plasmon Cocoa and Plasmon Oats which were a great boon, particularly to those who required special diet.

(Signed) 
 
FRED W. HANSON,
STANLEY LAMBERT.
Barrack Superintendents.
 
To the Editor, "Khaki Magazine," London.
In the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.6), a brief paragraph discussing Stanley Lambert tells us that when he first joined the camp, he would do the early morning roll calls in Barrack 8, and soon became an interpreter between patients and medical staff in the camp. By March 1916 he was now looking after forty beds in the Schonung Baracke. A portrait of Lambert accompanied the article on page 7, drawn by C. M. Horsefalls on Feb 15th 1916.
 
After the war, Lambert was present at the Ruhleben Exhibition at the Central Hall, Westminster, on February 10th 1919, where he was one of the prisoners who entertained the King and Queen on a Royal visit to see for themselves what the prisoners had endured, and as recorded in The Times of February 11th 1919 ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.9, col. F).
"Mr. Lambert (Convalescent Barracks) was particularly loudly cheered on appearing in his turn for presentation - a spontaneous tribute to his untiring work for the sick and aged..."
In the following year, Lambert received an O.B.E. for his work in connection with the care of the sick at Ruhleben Camp, as noted in the Times of April 1st 1920 (p.21).
 
 

Frederick Lamont
 
Frederick Lamont was a well-known pianist who had been resident for some twenty years in Berlin prior to the outbreak of the war. He was arrested and sent to Ruhleben, but was released at the end of December 1914, as recorded in the Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.6).
 
After the war, Lamont successfully sued Messrs E. Hulton and Co. because of a libellous paragraph in the Daily Sketch which contained the words "Lamond is a Scotsman by birth, and if he has been obliged to adopt German nationality, as report says, there is something mysterious about it." Complaining that he was being portrayed as having German sympathies and of being a traitor whilst interned in Ruhleben, the jury agreed, and awarded him £21 in damages. The story was covered in The Times on March 29th 1919 ("Law Report", p. 4, col. A).
 
Under a spelling variation of Lammond, the following appeared in the Guardian of August 21st 1915 (p. 4):
That not all people of British birth are even yet taboo in Germany may be seen by the continued appointment of Mr. Eugen d'Albert as co-conductor with M. Nikisch at the Berlin Philharmonic Concerts. Mr d' Albert, like Mr. Frederick Lammond, is a native of Glasgow, but although Mr. Lammond was before the war acknowledged in Germany as the greatest of all Beethoven players, his most recent exploits have been at Ruhleben, where he was quickly interned. 
 

W. S. Lancaster
 
W. S. Lancaster was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
Lancaster was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 71 Myrtle Street, New Lane, Patricroft.
 
 

Arthur Landrum
 
Arthur Landrum is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Landrum is recorded as having been born on December 4th 1875 in Heywood, Lancashire, and is described as having been a fitter prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 17 Charter Street, Accrington, Lancashire. At the time the register was recorded, Luck was noted as staying in box 6, having transferred there from Barrack 7 on November 20th 1917. He is further noted as having relocated to Holland on March 22nd 1918.
 
Landrum was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". 
 
 

Billings Lane
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Billings Lane was from Bottesford, Nottingham, born in Bottesford in 1886, and an engineer. He was arrested in Berlin on 5 AUG 1914 and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
 
Freddy Lane
 
Freddy Lane was described by a jockey called H. W. Dye in an article in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians", p.5, col.D) as being one of the twelve jockeys still held in Ruhleben after Dye's relase in January 1916.
 
Lane also later had the honour to be lampooned by way of a monogram drawn in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917), by artist CMAW.
 
From Jochem Heicke in Germany, I received the following in April 2008, for which I am grateful:
Freddy Lane was probably a  cousin of british Champion Jockey Otto
Madden, son of the famous Kincsem jockey Elijah Madden. He rode "Mon Desir" the German Oaks winner of 1914 for Schlenderhan, and in 1932 a Fred Lane rode "April the fifth" the Derby winner at Epsom.
 

A. J. Lasker
 
A. J. Lasker, of Goole, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Charles Lathem
 
Charles Lathem was noted as a former inmate at Ruhleben in his obituary in The Times on August 18th 1926 ("English Climber Killed in Switzerland", p. 9, col. C). The article notes that he was formerly a schoolmaster, and that he died in an accident whilst climbing the Aiguille Uchardonnet in the Mont Blanc massif above Argentieres. At the time of death, he was just 36 years old, and had been a member of the International Labour Office practically since its inauguration.
 
 
Henry Laughton
 
In December 2007 I was contacted by Mrs R. Hicke, whose grabdftaher Henry Laughton was interned at the camp, and to whom I am indebted for the following information:
Henry Laughton died in the mid seventies. After he was released from Ruhleben , he was sent to Canada. He never again got back to Leeds, England to see his relatives.  We have picture frames that my Grandfather craved from wood, with the camp name on them and other things.
 

James William Laurenson
 
James William Laurenson was an inmate at Ruhleben, who came from Norwick, Unst, on the Shetland Islands. He was quartermaster on the S.S. Vienna, which was in port in Hamburg when the war broke out, and was duly interned at Ruhleben, where he became batman to three young men, John Balfour, Timothy Eden and one other as yet unknown person. He was mentioned in Balfour's memoirs, although with his name spelt wrongly!  The S. S. Vienna, a former Edinburgh to Hamburg steam packet, was converted by the Germans after its capture to become a minelaying merchant raider, and was sunk by the British in 1915, after she sank the former Isle of Man ferry the Ramsay.
 
According to Laurenson grandson Norman Moir, the Balfour family showed great kindness to Laurenson's wife during the war, and never forgot how he took their young son (aged 18 at internment) under his wing. Right up until their deaths, the Laurenson family received a present and card at Christmas and on their respective birthdays.
 
 

Paul Law
 
Paul Law is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Law is recorded as having been born on April 12th 1865 in Wolverhampton, and is described as having been a silversmith prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 75 Andershaw Road, Manchester. At the time the register was recorded, Law was noted as staying in box 27, having transferred there from Barrack 1 on April 19th 1915. He is further noted as having returned to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
 

Charles Norman Lawrence
 
Charles Norman Lawrence is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Lawrence is recorded as having been born on March 11th 1892 in Egham, and is described as having been a teacher prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Langborough Rise, Wokingham. At the time the register was recorded, Lawrence was noted as staying in loft A.
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University also holds items on Lawrence in RUH 28, donated by his widow Mrs E. E. Lawrence in 1978. These are three issues of 'In Ruhleben Camp' (June 6th 1915, August 29th 1915, and October 1915); five photographs; two hand-painted cards with autographs of Barrack 5's football team, from 1914 to 1915; a hand-painted autographed Phoenix Club dinner menu from May 28th 1917; and a manuscript account of C.N. Lawrence's internment at Ruhleben by his widow, Mrs E. E. Lawrence. The online index also tells us Lawrence was born in 1892 at Egham, Surrey, and that he was studying German in Heidelburg at the outbreak of the war when he was arrested. He spent the duration of the war in Ruhleben's Barrack 5.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Lawrence is noted as being from Langborough Rise, Wokingham, Berkshire, and as having been born in Egham in 1892. He worked as a teacher in Heidelberg, where he was arrested on 6 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Donauschingen and Berlin, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
 

George Lawrence
 
George Lawrence is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Lawrence is recorded as having been born on June 12th 1880, and is described as having been a jockey prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Mulheimerstr. 154, Duisburg. At the time the register was recorded, Lawrence was noted as staying in box 8.
 
Lawrence is also recorded as having spent some time in the Schonungsbaracke between July 8th 1918 and July 25th.
 
In April 2008 Jochem Heicke in Germany supplied me with the following additional information on Lawrence:
George Lawrence did not show up in the jockey statistics of 1914 but held a legitimation card in 1914 as employed in horse racing. He was probably related to trainer Charles Lawrence (Hamburg)
 

Digby R. Lawson
 
The National Archives in London contain documents from 1916 on Digby R. Lawson at FO383/197, specifically on a cheque to be forwarded on his behalf to Mrs Charles Young, of Old Trafford, Manchester.
 
 

Eli George Lawson
 
Eli George Lawson is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Lawson is recorded as having been born on July 4th 1892, and is described as having been a teacher prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 31 Ladywell Street, Newtown, Montg. At the time the register was recorded, Lawrence was noted as staying in box 18, having transferred there from the Tea House on April 19th 1915.
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University holds a great deal relating to Lawson's stay at Ruhleben, located at RUH 29, the documents having been deposited there by Lawson in September 1976. The items include the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association from 1915; a typescript roll of honour of Old Boys from an unknown British school who 'have offered themselves for their country'; two bound volumes of Italian Circle magazine 'L'Eco' (1916 to 1917); a photograph of the Soldiers' Council proclamation after the revolution, in German and English, from November 1918; a Ruhleben Exhibition catalogue from 1919; a book of German verse entitled 'Deutschland' belonging to Heinrich Heine; four issues of 'In Ruhleben Camp' (June 6th 1915, June 27th 1915, July 11th 1915, and December 1915); three issues of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (April 1916, May 1916, December 1916); an issue of 'The Mosquito' magazine, produced by the Salonika Reunion Association (Mar 1958); Press cutting 'Great War Memories of a German POW Camp'; a 'Kitchener Writing Pad' envelope; a programme for a 'Serata Musicale' from April 1918; a restaurant bill; a Garden Fete programme from July 18th 1959); two letters to G. C. Pether from the Ruhleben Prisoners' Release Committee, dated December 12th 1918, and January 8th 1919; a prospectus of work for the summer term at Ruhleben Camp School from 1916; a fragment of prospectus of work for the autumn term at the Ruhleben Camp School from 1916; a prospectus of work for the summer term at the Ruhleben Camp School from 1917; an issue of 'La Vie Francaise de Ruhleben' from July 14th 1916; a letter from the Transport Secretary of the Central Prisoners of War Committee, dated May 6th 1919; a photograph; bound issues of 'In Ruhleben Camp' (June to December 1915); bound issues of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (March 1916 to June 1917) and 'La Vie Francaise de Ruhleben' (April to July 1916); and a typed transcript of an interview recorded with Peter Liddle in April 1978, with the original recording held on tapes 497 and 491. The online index also tells us that Lawson was born in 1892 in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, and was educated at University College, Aberystwyth. He was teaching in Hamburg at the outbreak of the war and during his internment at Ruhleben, he represented the Teahouse at football.
 
 
S. Lawson
 
S. Lawson was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 30 Hale Road, Liscard, Wallasey.
 
 

Dr. George Layton
 
The National Archives in London holds a 1915 document at FO383/26 on Ruhleben inmate Dr. G. Layton, an enquiry regarding his dental degree.
 
The archive holds further documents from 1916 at FO383/208 regarding arrangements for Dr. Layton's release from Ruhleben Camp, including a request by Mrs Yvonne Layton for help in securing her husband's release, a denial of reports that Dr. Layton had requested to be repatriated to Brussels, a request by Dr. Layton to be allowed to return via Switzerland to le Havre (France), to continue his work with the Belgian Red Cross, the release of Dr. Layton on July 6th 1916, and information that he had travelled to Nice for health reasons, a memorial from Dr. Layton claiming compensation for his arrest and internment, and comments by M. H. Spielmann relating to Dr. Layton's memorial.
 
Layton was recorded in the Times of July 8th 1916 ("Back from Germany", p.7, col.A) as arriving at Gravesend on July 7th 1916, having been released from Ruhleben.
 
In The Times of August 10th 1916, M. H. Spielman wrote a letter to the editor, explaining that Layton had been a dentist in Brussels who had been seized in breach of the Geneva Convention in 1914 and carried to Ruhleben, where he had "contracted bronchitis through exposure and neglect" ("The Ruhleben Cruelties", p.8, col. C). Spielman then quotes directly from an account given by Layton to another correspondent:
"I would have liked to explain to you (before proceeding to France) the inhuman and disgraceful treatment meted out to the prisoners in Ruhleben, more especially the criminal neglect of the doctor in charge during the first part of the imprisonment, the want of food, the unnecessary cruelty in many ways, insomuch that I had the absolute conviction that as the Germans could not shoot us they desired to destroy us mentally and physically as much as possible. This is so true that the Nord Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, about the month of October, officially informed the German public that we would not be allowed to have any means at our disposal that would render our internment supportable. This and more I would like to tell you, because I know it would get to the right channel, which some day will be able to give us the justice which we have learned to be our birthright as Britishers.
 
 

John Layton
 
The National Archives in London holds documents from 1915 at FO383/26 concerning John Layton, interned in Ruhleben.
 
 
Isaac Lazzarus (Isaak Lazarus)
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Isaac Lazzarus is noted as being a merchant from 33 Belsie park Garden, London N.W. He was arrested in Berlin on 6 NOV 1914 and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 6.
 
As Isaak Lazarus he was recorded as one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was resident in Barrack 13 by this point. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

George Le Jeune
 
George Le Jeune was listed in The Times of January 8th 1916 ("Released Civilians" p.5, col. D) as one of 69 men released from Ruhleben on Thursday, January 6th, 1916, who subsequently travelled to Flushing for their return trip to England.
 
 

Clifford Leach
 
Clifford Leach was interned in Ruhleben from 1914 - 1918 after being arrested at Guben, where he was working, along with his brothers Willie and Sam, and his father Harry. Many thanks to Clifford's grandson Andrew Leach for providing this information in January 2007.
 
 
G. Leach
 
G. Leach, of South Shields, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
Harry Leach
 
Harry Leach was interned in Ruhleben from 1914 - 1916 after being arrested at Guben, along with his sons Clifford, Willie and Sam. Harry was subsequently invalided back home in 1916, though his sons remained interned until 1918. Many thanks to Harry's great grandson Andrew Leach for providing this information in January 2007.
 
 
Sam Leach
 
Sam Leach was interned in Ruhleben from 1914 - 1918 after being arrested at Guben, where he was working, along with his brothers Willie and Clifford, and his father Harry. Many thanks to Sam's great nephew Andrew Leach for providing this information in January 2007.
 
 
Willie Leach
 
Willie Leach was interned in Ruhleben from 1914 - 1918 after being arrested at Guben, where he was working, along with his brothers Clifford and Sam, and his father Harry. Many thanks to Willie's great nephew Andrew Leach for providing this information in January 2007.
 
 

William Leak
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, William Leak is noted as being from 256 Redbank Road, Bispham near Blackpool, and as having been born in Heywood in 1878. He was a correspondent in Cologne, where he was arrested on 4 AUG 1914. After a brief period held in Cologne, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5. The entry suggests that Leak was a Chairman, presumably of the football team for the barrack.
 
Leak is also listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In this, he is recorded as having been born on June 22nd 1878 in Birtle-cum-Bamford, Lancashire, and is described as having been a correspondent prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 256 Redbank Road, Bispham, Blackpool. At the time the register was recorded, Leak was noted as staying in box 19, and was further recorded as being granted indefinite leave on December 14th 1917.
 
Leak was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded in this as 15 Church Road, Bispham, Blackpool.
 
 

T. Lealter
 
T. Lealter, of Belfast, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Arthur Llewellyn Lean (1871 - 1949)

 

Arthur Llewellyn Lean was an electrical engineer by profession and worked for an Anglo-German company, Nšegeli in Berlin from 1907 until the outbreak of the war. A Quaker by religion, he met and married Constance Henderson in Berlin and their 4 children were born there.

 

Arthur was subsequently arrested in Berlin in 1914 and interned at Ruhleben, where he found the conditions extremely harsh. His wife, Constance, stayed in Germany until 1915 when the situation became too dangerous and she returned to England with her children, settling in Truro, Cornwall. 

 

Arthur was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 19. (Thanks to Marcus Bateman for this detail).

 

After the war, Alfred was able to obtain a job as a patent officer with the London firm of Boult, Wade & Tennant, before the majority of men returning from war were to face mass unemployment.

 

After the war, Arthur always declined to speak about his experiences in the camp, having found it so traumatic.

 

As an interesting footnote, Arthur was uncle to the eminent film director David Lean, who was responsible for such epics as The Bridge on The River Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia, and Doctor Zhivago.

 

(I am extremely grateful to Arthur's grandson Alan Rowntree for supplying me with the above information in December 2005, as well as providing me with a cutting from Punch magazine, dated November 4th 1988, which revealed more information on camp life and on fellow Ruhleben inmate Robert Walker, one of the camp's artist's and regular contributor to Ruhleben's various periodicals.)

 

 

Bartholomew Lean

 

Bartholomew Lean was the fireman on the 'Iris', originally from 86 Gallywall Road, Bermondsey SE, and was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 4. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.

 

 

E. Learmond
 
E. Learmond was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 
Arthur Learey
 
Arthur Learey was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. He was described as a 37 year old groom who had been working in Berlin.
 
He is almost certainly the Leary listed in another document in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The list was communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
 
John Leary
 
John Leary was a seaman on the 'City of Belfast', originally from Tinahash, Arklow, Wicklow, Ireland, and was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 4. (Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.)
 
 

George Leask
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/60 regarding George Leask, chief officer of the S.S. Kass-all, a British subject interned at Ruhleben, and his intention to claim compensation for losses sustained.
 
 

Thomas Leather
 
The Scotsman newspaper reported on March 9th 1916 that Thomas Leather had been released from Ruhleben a couple of days earlier ("Released from Ruhleben", p.5).
 
 

Dr. Lechmere
 
Dr. Arthur Eckley Lechmere was noted in the seventh issue of In Ruhleben Camp magazine as having just set up the Science Union (Sept. 1915, p.2).
 
was noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.16) as having given a nautical lecture entitled "Barnacles".
 
The Times of February 20th 1919 gives an obituary for Lechmere which reveals much of his situation with regard to Ruhleben ("After Four Years of Ruhleben", p. 5, col. B):
The death occurred last Friday at Milverton House, Long Ashton, near Bristol, of Arthur Eckley Lechmere, M.Sc., D.Sc., of Fownhop, hereford, who for over four years was interned at Ruhleben Camp, aged 34. He was studying in Germany at the outbreak of war, and got to the frontier, but was stopped and interned. He worked in salt mines, and in consequence his health suffered. On the signing of the Armistice he was repatriated, and soon afterwards took up an appointment in the research department at the National Cider Institute, Long Ashton, for which he had been qualifying in Germany.
 
 

D. H. Lee
 
D. H. Lee was photographed as a member of the Ruhleben Parcel Post team - see entry for Alfred Hazell King for the photo.
 
He may also be the Lee noted in the second issue of In Ruhleben Camp (1915, p.22) as being one of the backs of the Irish rugby team, in a series of friendly internationals in the camp.
 
 

Leek
 
Leek was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing A side in a second division match between the A team and the B team on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 
J. Leigh
 
J. Leigh was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 113 Clarence Road, Rusholme.
 
 
James J. Leigh
 
James J. Leigh was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 12. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

Hugo Leiphold
 
Hugo Leiphold was a British Ruhleben prisoner released in October 1916, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper of October 9th 1916 ("Released from Ruhleben - Arrival of British Party at Rotterdam", p.6).
 
Leiphold was also noted in the Times of October 7th 1916 ("Back From Germany", p.7, col. E) as one of five men released from Ruhleben in September 1916, who were hospitably cared for by the Society of Friends.
 
 
Gustav Leipoldt
 
Many thanks to Elizabeth Beasley, daughter of internee Jack Griggs, for sharing the following information in November 2007. Gustav "features in the photo inside Barrack XI, Box 3 with Jack, Victor MacMahon and another known only as 'FGC'.  I don't think he lived in this Box with the others featured.  He looks about age 35-40."
 
 

Lenson
 
Lenson was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 
Jul. Lenz
 
Lenz was noted in Barrack 6 Box 2 on correspondence held by Dr Manfred G. Heber in Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

S. Leon
 
S. Leon is noted in issue six of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as having produced the play "The Bells" whilst in the camp.
 
 
Lerrin
 
Lerrin is noted as having been in the Teahouse on a letter dated 3 FEB 1916, held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

L. Levy
 
L. Levy was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 

Walter Lewenz (1872 - 1942)
 
Walter Lewenz was reported as one of the former inmates at Ruhleben in an article in The Times of December 23rd 1918 ("Through German Eyes", p.7, col. G).
It appears that one Walter Lewenz, of German origin but born and brought up in England, was interned in Ruhleben in November 1914, but was released because his wife was dangerously ill. His 12 year old daughter had been expelled as an "enemy" from a municipal school in Berlin. 
Lewenz appealed for help from a Heidelburg doctor to ask a Professor Gerhard Anschutz to defend him and his family. Anschutz catagorically refused, saying that anyone who had thrown off their German nationality for that of an English identity should now bear the consequences.
 
In April 2007, Olive Lewenz contacted me to add the following details on Walter, who was a couisn to her husband's grandfather.
Although Walter was born in Nottingham, he travelled on business and married Rose Marie Eisenberg from Leipzig. They had Hilda Marianne in 1900 and Edith Alice in 1902, both born in Berlin. Walter applied for British nationality for each of his two daughters soon after they were born as he felt that this was important. Sadly Hilda died of scarlet fever in 1909.
 
The family was traveling in Switzerland when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot in 1914. Walter was an optimist. He decided that the event wasn’t significant and he crossed into Germany to visit the family home in Berlin. Although he spoke German, the Germans knew by his accent that he wasn’t a native German. Walter was regarded as an Englishman, he was interned for the duration of the war, and his assets in Germany were seized by the German government. After the war the family returned to Nottingham.
Many thanks to Olive for her contribution.
 
 

John Lewins
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/50 regarding the effects of four British seamen detained at Ruhleben, namely Charles Sivier, A. Reilly, John Lewins, and E. W. Henderson, all formerly of the S.S. Monitoria. The documents regard the payment of the balance of their wages, arrangements for the delivery of their effects, and an investigation into their subsequent non-delivery, leading to the question of responsibility for their losses and possible compensation.
 
 

Maurice Lewinsohn
 
The National Archives hold documents from 1916 at FO383/208 regarding an enquiry from Maurice Lewinsohn about the decision not to grant payment from the British Relief Fund to himself and his brother, Max Lewinsohn, both interned at Ruhleben Camp.
 
 
Max Lewinsohn
 
The National Archives hold documents from 1916 at FO383/208 regarding an enquiry from Maurice Lewinsohn about the decision not to grant payment from the British Relief Fund to himself and his brother, Max Lewinsohn, both interned at Ruhleben Camp.
 
 

Thomas Lewis
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/26 regarding the transmission of birth and marriage certificates for Ruhleben inmate Thomas Lewis.
 
A "T. Lewis" was noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 
S. Lewisjohn
 
S. Lewisjohn is noted on correspondence held by Dr Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria as having been in Barrack 6 Box 13 (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

A. E. Licence
 
A. E. Licence is listed in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) as co-craftsman responsible for a clock and inlaid box photographed for the publication as an example of camp craftsmanship, his colleague being J. White.
 
Licence was also noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing A side in a second division match between the A team and the B team on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
 

Maximillian Friedrich Liddell
 
Maximillian Friedrich Liddell (a.k.a. Liddle) was the son of Arthur Liddell and Emilie Zimmermann, and was educated at King Edward VI School, Morpeth, Edinburgh University. Studying at Poznan in 1914, he was interned at Ruhleben, where he formed a long lasting friendship with R. M. Smyllie, a Trinity undergarduate who was later to become editor of the Irish Times.
 
The Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.8) recorded the text of the following postcard sent to Edinburgh University:
"Best greetings to the old 'Varsity from the following students and ex-students at present resident at Ruhleben - James L. Mounsey; H. J. W. Tillyard, lecturer in Greek; W. J. Crosland Briggs, M.A., 1914; Harold Luck, M.A., 1913; M. F. Liddle, M.A., 1909; J. Halliday, M.A., 1914; James Peebles Conn, Bucher scholar in music, 1902; J. M. Dickson, M.A., BSc., Agric.; R. Herdman Pender, M.A., teacher in George Heriot's School; E. G. Burgoyne, J. Fleming, 1895-97; Robert McNeil, 1905-6; Eric G. Riddell, 1908-9, former students."
Liddell was made fun of in a sketch in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.37), when it was suggested that after the war, he should become the proprietor of a night club.
 
Liddell's obituary was carried in The Times of May 1st 1968 ("Dr. M. F. Liddell", p.12, col. G). After the war, he attended Birmingham University, and then from 1932 spent the next 26 years as the Chair of German at Trinity College, Dublin.
 
 

John Charles Limschon
 
John Charles Limschon is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Limschon is recorded as having been born on December 13th 1877 in Melbourne, Australia, and is described as having been a teacher prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Pfaffendorferstr. 7, Leipzig. At the time the register was recorded, Limschon was noted as staying in loft B, having transferred to there from Barrack 22b on July 15th 1917. He was later released to Holland on April 25th 1918.
 
 

Edw. Lindley
 
Edw. Lindley was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as c/o Messrs. Mandlebergs Ltd.,  Pendleton.
 
Lindley was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6).
 
 

Lindsay
 
Lindsay was described by James Peebles Conn in one of his letters to his parents, and published in the Scotsman on May 12th 1915 (p.14). In an article entitled "A Burns Celebration in a German Prison", Lindsay was descibed by Conn as "a first-rate pianist, a fine operatic singer, and Russian balalaika player". Lindsay was also noted as putting together a concert with Conn on the 2nd instant, and of playing the piano at the camp's first Burns Night celebration.
 
On the fourth page of the first issue of "In Ruhleben Camp" (June 6th 1915), Mr. Lindsay's musical concerts is advertised:
In the course of the next week also Mr Lindsay and Mr. George Fergusson will hold an invitation vocal and piano recital on strictly classical lines, the programme will include selections from the works of Bach, Brahms and Beethoven.
In the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.25) Lindsay's contribution to the new concert season was noted:
Orchestra concerts will be given on every third Sunday, the intervening Sundays being devoted to chamber and vocal and instrumental recitals. The first three Symphony Concerts will be conducted by Messrs. Bainton, Weber and Macmillan, among the works promised being Schumann's Pianoforte Concerto (with Mr. Lindsay as soloist), and Mozart's Symphony in E. flat. Other prospective events include a recital by Messrs. Keel and Lindsay, a chamber concert, arranged by Mr. Short, at which Ed. Schutt's Suite for Violin and Pianoforte and some Two-pianoforte music will be brought forward.   
And in the Musical Notes section of the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917), Mr. Lindsay is further noted as having contributed to the music scene in the camp:
Mr. Lindsay has figured as soloist in no less than three concertos, and has played with his usual brilliance in each case. 
 
 

John W. Lintner
 
John W. Lintner was the chairman of Marawan (Java) Rubber. At the beginning of the war he had been at a German health resort in Nauheim, and had been arrested and interned at Ruhleben. The Scotsman newspaper carried an article on 10/12/1914 (p.3) apologising for his absence from the company's board meeting.
 
The Times of January 20th 1915 (page 4, col. A) tells us that a postcard sent to the paper and signed by Ruhleben inmates John W. Lintner, A. J. Dolphin, R. L. Nunn, Wm., Stern, E. Williams and W. S. Cohn wished for a "happy Christmas and a brighter New Year".
 
 

William Lister
 
William Lister was a British jockey working in Hoppegarten, who was interned in Ruhleben at the beginning of November 1914, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper on 9/11/1914 (p.9), and in The Times of the same day ("British Interned in Germany", p. 7, col. E).
 
From Jochem Heicke in Germany, I received the following in April 2008, for which I am very grateful:
Jockey *William* Lister had only one bigger success when he won the Hamburg Handicap in 1908. He did not show a winner in 1914, but held a legitimation card.
 
 

Oates Lithgow
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Oates Lithgow was resident at Knowle Villa, Linthorpe, Middlesborough, was born in Linthorpe on 23 OCT 1885, was a marine engineer, was arrested in Hamburg on 16 OCT 1914, and after a period on the hulks in Hamburg, was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
Lithgow was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the winning Cameron's XI side against Brearley's XI on October 7th 1916. The score was 4-2 to the Cameron team.
 
Lithgow was also noted as playing on the England side, led by Steve Bloomer, in a mock international between England and the Rest of the World on May 2nd 1915. Kick off took place at 4.30pm, and a document with the teams listed wa srecently discovered amongst some Foreign Office files by the National Archives, in November 2005.
 
A photo of Lithgow at another Ruhleben match can be viewed online at Steve Bloomer's Farewell Match.
 
 

Sallast (?) Littaur
 
Sallast Littaur was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
The name is difficult to read, but appears to be Sallast. As 'S. Littaur', he was further noted in The Times of December 8th 1915 as having been one of the 160 prisoners released from Ruhleben on the previous day who had travelled by train to Flushing ("Returning Civilians" p.9, col.F).
 
 
Hermann Littmann
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Herman Littmann is noted as being a merchant from 56 Grinstelhof, Hamburg 13. He was arrested in Hamburg on 6 NOV 1914 and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 6.
 
 

Sallurst Littzer
 
Sallusrt Littzer was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
 
 

John Alexander Lloyd
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University contains many items relating to inmate John Alexander Lloyd, at RUH 30, the items having been donated by Frances Waite between 1977 and 1983. These include a letter written to his wife and baby daughter at Ludwigshafen before his internment, dated November 1914; a diary, with additional notes from 1914 to 1917); nine mounted family photographs with captions (1914 to 1918); a photocopied letter in diary form, written by Mrs. Lloyd in Ludwigshafen to her parents, from August 6th to October 1914; miscellaneous German papers, one with translation (1914, 20th to 21st Nov 1918); four internal Ruhleben postcards (December 15th 1915 and January 14th 1916); three postcards; bound issues of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (March 1916 to June 1917) and 'La Vie Francaise de Ruhleben' (April to July 1916); two envelopes, opened by the censor (November 6th 1918, and November 8th 1918); hot water coupons; a book, 'Ivanhoe', bound by J. A. Lloyd at Ruhleben; a folder of papers and correspondence relating to the recovery from Germany of shares, interest and bank balances (August 28th 1919 to December 15th 1923; a curriculum vitae; 'The Stadium Club' dinner menu, with the words of the Ruhleben Song (November 9th 1929); a Ruhleben Association Life Membership Card (December 5th 1930); and two defraction rings. The online index tells us that Lloyd was born in 1878 in Birmingham and educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and at London and Birmingham Universities. He was working in Ludwigshafen at the outbreak of the war, and whilst in Ruhleben taught Physics, studied leatherwork and bookbinding, and took part in amateur dramatics, whilst living in Barrack 11. He died in 1960.
 
 

Thomas Lloyd
 
Thomas Lloyd was one of the Ruhleben prisoners to sign a message of greeting to Sir Edward Letchworth, Grand Secretary of English Freemasons, postmarked December 9th 1914, and printed in the Times of December 28th 1914 (page 3, col. B). The message stated:
"Worshipful Sir & Bro.,
 
We the undersigned brethren, at present interned with other British civilians at the concentration camp at Ruhleben - Spandau, Germany, send hearty good wishes to the Grand Master, officers and brethren in Great Britain, hoping that we may have the pleasure soon of greeting them personally."
T. Lloyd, of South Shields, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
Thomas was one of nine men released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Times of January 12th 1917 ("Nine Prisoners Released from Ruhleben", p.5, col. B).
 
 

J. J. Lockart
 
J. J. Lockart, of Liverpool, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

Stuart Lockhart
 
The National Archives in London holds docuemnts from 1915 at FO383/39 regarding conditions at Ruhleben, in an account from Stuart Lockhart of Liverpool, who had been recently liberated from the camp.
 
 

Captain William James Lockhart (Lukhart)
 
Aigburth man Captain William James Lockhart, of the steamer Lothian, belonging to Messrs. Warrack & Co., leith, was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, arriving back at Gravesend on January 27th 1917, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper of February 2nd 1917 ("Mercantile Marine Officers Back From Ruhleben", p.3).
 
William James Lukhart (sic) was one of sixteen men released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Times of January 29th 1917 ("Changed Conditions in Germany", p.8, col. G).
 
 

Allan Grant Lockhead
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO383/39 regarding British colonials in Germany, including the case of Allan Grant Lockhead, a British subject born in Canada, and subsequently imprisoned at Ruhleben.
 
 

George Logie
 
George Logie was listed in the fourth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (August 1916, p.45) as being the best player in the Ruhleben Tennis Association.
 
 

E. Long
 
E. Long, of Hull, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

F. S. Long
 
F. S. Long, of Hull, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 

George Long (1870 - 1948)
 
George Long was a British horse trainer working in Hoppegarten, who was interned in Ruhleben at the beginning of November 1914, as noted in the Scotsman newspaper on 9/11/1914 (p.9), and in The Times of the same day ("British Interned in Germany", p. 7, col. E).
 
The Scotsman notes on 30/11/1914 (p.9) that he was released from the camp two days prior, on the 28th.
 
I received the following addtional information on Long in April 2008 from Jochem Heicke, for which I am extremely grateful:
George Long was born in Vienna 27 Nov 1870 and died in Hoppegarten 11 Jun 1948. His grave is the first on the norteastern side of the cemetary. His daughter Hilda Isabella Utting died 1986 in Winchester.
 
Fred Longbottom
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Fred Longbottom was noted as being from Mount Villa, Batley, and as having been born in Batley in 1884. He worked as an assistant manager and was arrested in Wittenberge on 6 AUG 1914. He was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7.
 
Fred Longbottom is later noted as having been in the Administration Building Room 9 on two envelopes dated 24 JAN 1916 and 12 FEB 1916, held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

Longhurst
 
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1916 at FO383/206 regarding an enquiry by Mrs A. Longhurst concerning her husband at Ruhleben camp.
 
A suggestion by German golf historian Christopher N. Meister is that this might in fact be golfing professional Joseph George Longhurst:

Born at Ascot 1863, Joseph became a founding member of the British Professional Golfers Association. He was a golf professional at Royal Ascot from 1888 until 1922.

 

He was a professional at Bad Homburg, which was only a summer and seasonal golf club, from 1903 to 1914. Apparently he was also a professional at Frankfort in 1914.

If still in Germany at the outbreak of the war, Joseph should have been interned, along with the many other golf professionals who eneded up in Ruhleben. A good piece of circumstantial evidence to support this theory is that the 1901 census for Ascot in England lists Joseph's wife as Alice Longhurst, which ties in with the National Archives entry above. This remains, however, unconfirmed for the moment.
 
 
Mark Longley
 
Mark Longley was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 124 Longley Road, Winton, Eccles. 
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Longley was from Manchester, born 1886 in Werkmeister, and arrested in Berlin, before being sent on to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 2.
 
 

John Henry Lorch  (aka Henry John Lorch)
 
The National Archives in London contain documents from 1915 at FO 383/23 and FO 383/24 relating to John Henry Lorch, or Henry John Lorch, with a request for his release on the basis of his claim to be a former British consular official. 
 
 
John Lord
 
John Lord was noted as being in Barrack 12 on a card from the German Parcel Post dated 20 DEC 1915, as now held by Dr. Manfred G. Heber of Grand Canaria (with thanks to Dr. Heber).
 
 

H. Richard Lorenz
 
The Liddle Collection of Leeds University contains many items relating to H. Richards Lorenz's stay at Ruhleben, held under reference RUH31, all of which were donated by A. R. Davie in May 1981. These are: approximately 150 letters from 1914 to 1918; a hand-painted Christmas card from 1918; ten postcards from between 1915 and 1916; a Ruhleben Lawn Tennis Association membership ticket from 1915; two issues of 'In Ruhleben Camp' (July 1915, August 1915); three issues of 'The Ruhleben Camp Magazine' (April 1916, May 1916, and December 1917); two issues of 'La Vie Francaise de Ruhleben' (April 1916, July 1916); a Central Charities Committee advice card; three leaflets on 'Communication with Prisoners of War Interned Abroad' (April 1916, December 1916); receipts dated April 15th 1916 and April 6th 1918; a 'Central Prisoners of War Committee' letter regarding parcels from October 1916; two letters from Thomas Cook & Son dated December 28th 1914; a typescript of the Ruhleben Song; a set of Ruhleben postage stamps; a tercentenary Shakespeare Festival programme (April 23rd to 25th 1916); a chamber concert programme October 23rd 1917; a receipt; a Ruhleben Camp School Spring Term membership card from 1917; a receipt for 'La Vie Francaise de Ruhleben' dated May 1st 1916; a reference library member's ticket from April 25th 1916); miscellaneous press cuttings from between 1912 and 1917; a scrapbook of press cuttings from November 10th 1914 to October 27th 1915; three notebooks, one belonging to E. B. Sloane, from 1916; approximately forty tickets and receipts from between 1914 and 1918; a tin 'Navy Cut' tobacco box; a 'Record Gaslicht-Hart' box; two glass slides; 108 photographs; a Ruhleben Association Life Membership Card from December 5th 1930; a report on the Ruhleben Association reunion in 1967; and two typed transcripts of an interview recorded with Peter Liddle in October 1977, with the original audio recordings on tapes 472 and 474. The online index also tell us that Lorenz was born in 1892 in Forest Hill, South London, to German parents and was educated at Dulwich College. He went to Hamburg in 1913 for medical treatment and was working in a bank in Berlin at the outbreak of the war, when he was arrested in November 1914 and held as a British civil prisoner of war at Ruhleben for the duration of hostilities, living in Barrack 10.  
 
 
Albert E. Lovell
 
Albert E. Lovell was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as c/o Joseph Bertwistle Esq., Colne.
 
 

Arthur Wilton Lowe
 
Arthur Wilton Lowe is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Lowe is recorded as having been born on June 28th 1895 in Nottingham, and is described as having been an electrician prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Saventham, Belgium. At the time the register was recorded, Lowe was noted as staying in loft B, having transferred there from Barrack 15 on April 19th 1915.
 
 
Frank Lowe
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Frank Lowe was resident at 61 Gramby Street, Newmarket, was born Manchester on 31 MAR 1884, was a jockey arrested in Hoppegarten on 6 NOV 1914, and sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 1.
 
Lowe was also recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was at this stage recorded as 309 Clevely Road, Newmarket.
 
 

Frederick Lowe
 
Frederick Lowe was named in an undated Foreign Office document contained within file FO 369/710, entitled Russenlager Ruhleben (Ruhleben Russian Camp), implying it was compiled at the outbreak of internment in 1914. Frederick was described as a 37 year old director who had been working in Neudamm.
 
It seems highly likely that this is the Lowe listed as being at Ruhleben in another Foreign Office file in FO 369/710 dated 11 OCT 1914. The name was included in a list communicated to the Foreign Office by a Nurse Coe (with thanks to Simon Fowler).
 
The National Archives in London hold documents in FO 383/206, from 1916, regarding an enquiry from Mr. Robert Lowe about his son, Fred Lowe, an internee at Ruhleben camp.
 
Lowe was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 67 Acre Street, Denton.
 
 

William Lowe
 
William Lowe was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 113 Robinson Street, Chadderton, Oldham.
 
 
William James Lowe
 
The National Archives in London hold doucments from 1916 at FO383/207 regarding permission granted to Mr. Albert Lowe to send money to his brother, Mr. William James Lowe, via Holland to Ruhleben.
 
Lowe was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Hawthorne Villa, Sussex Road, Southport.
 
 

Harry Lucas
 
Harry Lucas was present at the Ruhleben Exhibition on February 10th 1919, where he was one of the prisoners who entertained the King and Queen on a Royal visit to see for themselves what the civilians had endured, and as recorded in The Times of February 11th 1919 ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.9, col. F). Lucas presented the Queen with a purse made from rat-skin leather.
 
 

Harold Luck
 
Harold Luck is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Luck is recorded as having been born on October 3rd 1887 in Luton, and is described as having been a university lecturer prior to his internment. His home address was listed as Leagrave, Luton, Bedfordshire. At the time the register was recorded, Luck was noted as staying in box 24.
 
Harold Luck was also noted as being a divinity student at Edinburgh University who was interned in Ruhleben after the outbreak of war. The Scotsman newspaper on 1/1/1915 (p.8) recorded the text of the following postcard sent to Edinburgh University:
"Best greetings to the old 'Varsity from the following students and ex-students at present resident at Ruhleben - James L. Mounsey; H. J. W. Tillyard, lecturer in Greek; W. J. Crosland Briggs, M.A., 1914; Harold Luck, M.A., 1913; M. F. Liddle, M.A., 1909; J. Halliday, M.A., 1914; James Peebles Conn, Bucher scholar in music, 1902; J. M. Dickson, M.A., BSc., Agric.; R. Herdman Pender, M.A., teacher in George Heriot's School; E. G. Burgoyne, J. Fleming, 1895-97; Robert McNeil, 1905-6; Eric G. Riddell, 1908-9, former students."
The National Archives in London hold documents from 1915 at FO 383/25 concerning Luck and another divinity student, William John Crossland Briggs. The documents contain enquiries about the two students from Briggs's father, C. H. Briggs, of Shipley, Yorkshire, and from the Yorkshire United Independent College in Bradford. There is a further set of documentation on the question of Luck's release at FO383/26.
 
The Liddle Collection at Leeds University holds a couple of items relating to Luck, under reference RUH 32, namely an issue of "In Ruhleben Camp" (October 1915), and a photograph. These were donated by Dr. Isabella Leitch.
 
 

Godfrey Ludlow
 
Godfrey Ludlow is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Ludlow is recorded as having been born on August 19th 1893 in Newcastle, Australia, and is described as having been a violinist prior to his internment. His home address was listed as "Allowah", 74 Johnstone Street, Allendale, Sydney. At the time the register was recorded, Ludlow was noted as staying in Box 12, having arrived there on February 22nd 1915.
 
Between November 15th and November 17th, Ludlow spent some time in the camp's Schonungsbaracke, and between January 16th 1918 and January 29th he is recorded in the camp's Lazarett. Between March 21st and April 25th he is once more found in the Schoningsbaracke. He is further noted as having relocated to Holland on April 25th 1918.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Ludlow is noted as being from Sydney, New South Wales, and as having been born in Sydney in 1893. He worked as a violinist in Dresden, where he was arrested on 20 FEB 1915. After a brief period held in Dresden he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 5.
 
Godfrey Ludlow is also noted in the first issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (March 1916, p.26) as having performed the solo part of Broch's concerto in G minor at the fifth concert in the camp on February 20th 1916.
 
Ludlow was later thanked by B. J. D. in the sixth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (June 1917) for another recent musical perfomance at the camp:
"... and in addition to the string players mentioned above one thinks of Mr. Godfrey Ludlow (whose ill-health has latterly deprived the camp of one of its most eagerly looked for pleasures)."
Ludlow was also recorded in The Times as being about to give a concert at the Ruhleben Exhibition on Friday, February 7th, with fellow former Ruhleben musicians, all of whom had been professional musicians captured in Bayreuth. The article appeared on January 30th 1919 in the Times ("Ruhleben Exhibition", p.11, col. F).
 
The Times also recorded on June 23rd 1922 that Godfrey Ludlow was one of the former Ruhleben inmates who gave a concert at the Aeolian Hall, where he played the violin ("Recitals of the Week", p. 12, col. B):
"Mr. Ludlow is a careful player and guaranteed, as it were every phrase to be genuine; but human nature is weak and prefers recklessness at moments..." (!)
 
 

Lugdale
 
Lugdale was noted as playing on the Rest of the World side, led by Cameron, in a mock international between England and the Rest of the World on May 2nd 1915. Kick off took place at 4.30pm, and a document with the teams listed was recently discovered amongst some Foreign Office files by the National Archives, in November 2005.
 
 
John Luke
 
John Luke was one of a group of Ruhleben inmates released on March 6th 1918 to England, as noted in files at the National Archives in Kew under accession number MT9/1238. He was interned within Barrack 7. Many thanks to Marcus Bateman.
 
 

W. T. Lundy
 
W. T. Lundy, of Grimsby, was named in a list of merchant seamen interned at Ruhleben, as published by the Scotsman newspaper on 7/1/1915 (p.7).
 
 
Arthur Lunn
 
Arthur Lunn was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as Church Road, Northenden.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, Arthur Lunn was noted as being from Church Lane, Northernden, Manchester, and as having been born in Manchester in 1888. He worked as a fitter and was arrested in Bamberg on 6 AUG 1914, and after being imprisoned in Bamberg and Hmmelberg, he was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 7. 
 
 

Alfred Lustgarten
 
Alfred Lustgarten was recorded as a member of the Ruhleben Lancastrian Society in the Manchester Guardian of January 15th 1915 (p.12). The article is entitled "Interned in Germany: Lancashire's Civilian Prisoners: Full List of Those Detained at Ruhleben". His address was recorded as 292 Great Clowes Street, Hr. Broughton.
 
Lustgarten was noted in the fifth issue of the Ruhleben Camp Magazine (Christmas 1916, p.58) as having played for the losing A side in a second division match between the A team and the B team on October 3rd 1916. The score was B: 4 to A: 1.
 
From the handbook of the Ruhleben Football Association Season 1915, we learn that Kustgarten was from 292 Great Clowes Street, Nr. Broughton, Manchester. He was a buyer, arrested in Hanover on 6 NOV 1914 and after a brief imprisonment in the city was sent to Ruhleben, where he was interned in Barrack 3.
 
 

Samuel Henry Lynch
 
Samuel Henry Lynch is noted on the Absent Voters Grimsby & Cleethorpes website as being a fisherman interned at Ruhleben, and hence unable to vote in the election. His address was noted on the site as 3 back, 14 King Edward Street.
 
 

Robert Bater Lynn
 
Robert Bater Lynn is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Lynn is recorded as having been born on October 30th 1866 in London, and is described as having been a civil servant prior to his internment. His home address was listed as 83 Wiverton Road, Sydenham, Kent. At the time the register was recorded, Luck was noted as staying in loft B, and is further noted a shaving relocated to England on January 2nd 1918.
 
 

Ingoldsby Lyster-Smythe
 
Ingoldsby Lyster-Smythe is listed in the surviving register from Barrack 5 at Ruhleben (register number 2), recorded by Neville Stanley Wilkinson in approximately 1916. In the register, Lyster-Smythe is recorded as having been born on June 4th 1860 in Collinstown, Ireland, and has no profession listed for his time prior to the outbreak of the war. His home address was listed as Barbavilla, Collinstown, West Meath, Ireland. At the time the register was recorded, Lyster-Smythe was noted as staying in loft A, having arrived there from Celle on March 26th 1918. A month later he was relocated to Holland, on April 25th 1918.
 
 

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